Ugandan Girl 19 Becomes the youngest MP in Africa

 

Uganda’s and Africa’s youngest MP, Proscovia Oromait Alengot, is at that age when girls are preoccupied with nice clothes and an easy life, but thousands of people look up to her to improve their lives. Is the burden too heavy for her young shoulders?

Story by Daily Nation  October 8  2012 

For a fresh Member of Parliament barely out of her teens, Proscovia Oromait Alengot is learning the ways of her trade pretty fast.

Hardly a month after she was elected the Usuk County MP in Katakwi District, Eastern Uganda, Alengot is already a deft hand in the political art of elusiveness. Maybe it is in the DNA of “the people of people”.

This is probably the reason, to this date, a sense of mystery still surrounds the youngest MP in Africa.

Alengot has evaded interviews with journalists through persistent postponing, cancellation, rescheduling of appointments, or simply declaring herself unavailable.

In one incident, she picked up the phone and, in the midst of playful banter in the background, she said she was attending a prayer service.

In just the space of three months, she has had to cope with the transformation of a simple girl waiting to join university to being the subject of flashing cameras and a star in political rallies, a wacky world where shrewdness is essential for survival. And not forgetting that she had to mourn the loss of her father in between.

Today, as ordinary 19-year-old girls the world over invest their energies into starting university education and launching an initial bid at a career, Proscovia Oromait Alengot, now Hon Alengot, spends her time between university theatres and Parliament.

Alengot rose out of the wilderness of obscurity after her father, Michael Oromait, died of hypertension on the morning of Saturday July 21, this year.  She succeeded him as MP for Usuk County.

Some people say that Alengot was fronted and talked into the idea by the ambitious district woman member of Parliament and minister for Education, Maj Jessica Alupo. But Alengot says she did it under her own steam.

Newspapers have quoted family members as saying that Alengot took an interest in the requirements for one to become an MP after her father’s death.

To many onlookers, the 19-year-old’s candidature was a big joke. Few even gave her a chance. After all, she would go nowhere, they thought.

But Alengot had powerful backers, one of them being President Yoweri Museveni, who campaigned for her. She enjoyed photo ops with the big man, appearing dressed in oversized traditional busuti (dresses) alongside the president during the campaigns.

In the end, she won 54.2 per cent of the vote.

It is after the election results were announced that, for many, the reality sank in; Uganda now had a teenage member of Parliament. Critics were quick to spread their opinions of disagreement in all manner of forums, especially online.

“I pity my country Uganda and what has become of it. This little gal knows neither politics nor the problems affecting her people. She should be at school chasing a career,” commented one Tabbyusa.

Others, however, offered their support. “What are you talking about? That is what we want Uganda to be. If she can pay taxes and serve in the military, why not serve her country?” one Jackson quipped.

Political scientists and psychologists agreed that her age cannot be a hindrance.

Robert Tabaro, who teaches political science and public administration at Kyambogo University, says anybody aged 19 is old enough to legislate at a national level if they have an interest in politics.

It is when the person in question is “pushed”, and has not “chosen” to take up the mantle that they may not be unable to deliver.

Tabaro says that if Alengot was simply lured by the forces surrounding her, then her tenure in Parliament would be unlikely to bear good results for her constituency.

Paul Nyende, a psychology lecturer at Makerere University, says that at 19, one  is mature enough to participate in legislation. However, their childhood experiences and knowledge base will determine how well they perform.

An individual who has harboured leadership ambitions and has been exposed to positions of leadership at home and in school would fit the role, Nyende says.

The influence of one’s parentage would also be important — whether their parents encouraged them to take up leadership roles, for example.

But Nyende says the radical change from a private life into full limelight has the potential to wear down a 19-year-old. The young MP will, therefore, need someone to manage her life and offer support and advice.

Alengot seems to have that support from Maj Alupo, who appears to be her political mentor. It is this protective circle that is understood to be shielding her from journalists and telling her what to say in public — and, most importantly, what not to say.

Alengot is a First Year mass communication student at Uganda Christian University in Mukono District, a two-hour drive from Kampala.

Sources from the university describe the young MP as a confident, reserved girl who limits her interaction and socialising to two friends from her former high school.

She cites urgent constituency and parliamentary matters, among other engagements such as appointments with her wardrobe designer and hairdresser, whenever students seek to spend time with her.

Alengot attends only morning classes and is always punctual. She sits at the back of the classroom and rarely makes a contribution.

She is chauffeur-driven to school and does not have meals at the university dining hall. She dresses in formal wear that goes below the knees.

The Observer, quoting a former teacher, reported that Alengot won a beauty contest in high school two years ago. The paper also reported that there is controversy over her real age, as some official documents indicate that she is 21.

Alengot went to Madera Girls’ Primary School in Soroti,  Kigulu Girls’ Primary School, Iganga Girls’ School, PMM Girls’ School, and St Kalemba Secondary School in Kayunga. She spent a considerable part of her childhood in Jinja District, where her father’s main home was. This is about 200 kilometres from the constituency she now represents.

Many challenges will face any member of Parliament in their first term. But the odds are much higher against Alengot because there is more interest in her performance than that of an ordinary MP.

Every submission on the floor, every point of order, every point of information, every word she says in and out of Parliament will be latched upon by journalists seeking to create an image of what contributions she can make. It will be worse if she does not say a thing because that will vindicate her critics who say she has nothing to offer.

And Kampala’s notorious tabloids will be snooping around for any hint of sleaze.

Usuk constituency, and Uganda as a whole, now wait to hear what contributions she will make to the country’s development.

There will be interest in what proposals she will offer, say in the formulation of the Pension Bill or even the Domestic Relations Bill, for a person who has neither been married nor been employed before.

For Proscovia Oromait Alengot, life could feel like an adventure right now. But politics is not just an experience in excitement; she will need guts, wits, and the spirit of a fighter if her story is to conclude in a happy ending.

Child Sacrifice, Organs Harvesting and Ritual Murders

Stories of child murders for body parts harvesting are rampant in Uganda and other countries of Africa. A story of Kato Kajubi a Ugandan business tycoon sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in Uganda for committing child sacrifice. This sad story is one amongst many on how children are vulnerable.

Story by Daily Nation MICHAEL SSALI 13th August 2012, watchmanafricA,

Godfrey Kato Kajubi was no pauper. At 56, he owns property in Kampala, including hostels for university students and other pieces of real estate.

Many mortals would have been satisfied with just a roof over their heads. But it is not with Kajubi who will spend the rest of his life in prison.

The businessman, who also owned an expensive house at Gayaza near Masaka town, where he would often spend weekends, was seized with the conviction that there was more to making money than business acumen.

He believed in the unseen hand of spirits and the power of blood and human flesh in business and prosperity — precisely the sort of dark alchemy that leads to ritual murder.

And it was just a matter of time before it happened but it takes two to tango.

Kajubi’s partner was Umaru Kateregga, a young witchdoctor. Kateregga had apparently helped the businessman to recover the potency of his (Kajubi’s) personal shrine for which he was paid handsomely.

 Kateregga and his wife Mariam Nabukeera lived in Kayugi village in Mukungwe sub-county, Masaka District, where the witchdoctor had a shrine.

 According to Kateregga’s testimony in court, Kajubi asked him to find him a boy to work as a farm hand, collecting eggs on his poultry farm at Gayaza.

 Kateregga took time looking for the right candidate. He finally zeroed in on a neighbour’s grandchild, 12-year-old Joseph Kasirye, a Class Five pupil.

“The boy was our friend and he used to visit us,” Kateregga told the court.

 “He looked miserable and had told us he did not like school. When we told him about a rich man who would employ him  to collect eggs on his farm, he seemed excited about the idea.

So I went ahead and rang up Kajubi and informed him that I had found the boy he wanted. He told us that he would come for him on 27 October, 2008,” Kateregga testified before Mr Justice Michael Kibita.

On 26 October, 2008, Kateregga visited his neighbour, Mzee Matia Mulondo, 73, Kasirye’s grandfather and guardian.  At the compound was also Kasirye’s paternal uncle, Paulo Kasirye, who was visiting.

 In court, Paulo Kasirye recalled Kateregga asking for water. He remembered Kateregga pulling the boy aside and the two speaking in whispers. The reason would soon be clear.

Just before sunset, the boy took a jerry can and headed for the village well. His family never saw him again.

That evening, Mzee Mulondo and many family members combed the village for the boy but there was no sign of him. They also visited Kateregga’s home, but were told the boy had not been seen there.

In court, Kateregga admitted that Kasirye was in his house waiting for the rich man to pick him up. He testified that a bed was made for the boy in the living room after supper when Kajubi called to say that he would be late.

At about midnight, Kajubi called again to confirm that the boy was at Kateregga’s house. The businessman showed up past midnight carrying bottles of beer, soda, and samosas.

He offered a beer to Mariam and a bottle of soda and the samosas to the boy, who had been woken up when he arrived. Kateregga drank the rest of the beer.

Although both Mariam and Kateregga were Muslims, the court heard, they often drank beer.

After a few minutes, Mariam and the boy fell unconscious.

Kateregga told the hushed court that Kajubi called a man he referred to as Stephen, who had remained in the car.

According to Kateregga, Kajubi drew a pistol and ordered him and Stephen to carry Mariam out of the house through the back door.  Kateregga told the court that the gun-wielding businessman made him swear that he would never disclose what was about to happen.

Kajubi told Stephen to fetch a bucket, a gunny bag, and a knife from the car. At that stage, Kateregga  told the court that he was terrified, but he obeyed Kajubi’s orders because he feared that he would shoot him.

The witchdoctor testified that the businessman ordered him to take the sword and chop off Kasirye’s head. He and Stephen were then told to tap all the blood from Kasirye’s body into the bucket. The head was also put into the bucket.

Kajubi then ordered the two to cut off the boy’s genitals and put them in the bucket, then cover it. Kateregga and Stephen were told to wrap the body in a polythene sheet, then place it in the gunny bag. The bag was put in the boot of Kajubi’s car along with the bucket.

The court was told that Kajubi ordered Kateregga to get into the car and sit between Stephen and himself as Stephen drove.

Kateregga was supposed to show them a safe place in the swamp to dump the corpse. After disposing of the body, Kajubi took the wheel and drove Kateregga back to his house, then left.

By then, Kateregga’s wife was regaining consciousness. She asked if the rich man had left with the boy. Kateregga told the court that he told her what had happened and the couple decided to flee the village.

The following day, nearly everybody in the village was looking for the missing boy, but Kateregga and his wife were not in the search parties.

The villagers became suspicious because witchdoctors are rumoured to be notorious for child sacrifice and the traditional healer was not participating in the search.

Their suspicions were confirmed when they realised that the couple was preparing to leave. They arrested them and took them to the police.

A search at the witchdoctor’s house yielded Kasirye’s clothes and the empty jerry can from his grandfather’s home. Blood stains were also found on the floor.

On interrogation by the police, the story spilled out and Kateregga even directed the police to where the body was hidden.

When the story broke, Kajubi, a well known businessman in Kampala, presented himself to the police when it emerged that he was being sought.

Kateregga and his wife Mariam were prosecution witnesses in the case before Mr Justice Moses Mukiibi, who on 23 April, 2010 ruled that Kajubi had no case to answer and that he should not be prosecuted because the evidence before he court was not sufficient.

However, the State appealed and the ruling was overturned. The Court of Appeal ordered that Kajubi be arrested again and charged with murder.

The businessman went missing for almost a year until he was arrested early this year inside a shrine along the Entebbe-Kampala road.

On 1 February, Kajubi was charged with murder. The State appointed Mr Fred Kamugunda to represent him. He was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.

The dark art of harvesting human organs for riches

In September 2009, a six-year-old Sudanese boy, Emmanuel Agwar Adar was kidnapped   and murdered in Nairobi.  The murder was gory as it can be but they still rubbed it on by cutting off his tongue.

Barely a month before, the city’s taxi drivers took to the streets to protest the murder of their six colleagues in mysterious circumstances.

The taxi men claimed all the victims had their private parts chopped off before being dumped in the outskirts of the city.

Although there was no official confirmation, the drivers said the murders were related to a mix of occult and extortion.

Witchcraft hasn’t disappeared from African culture just as it refuses to go in the West. For centuries, human body parts have been used as ingredients for magical concoctions and charms.

To obtain body parts, performers of these dark arts kill people in order to harvest specific organs for use in the occult.

Things haven’t been easy for them with the advent of the nation-state in Africa where murder is a capital offence, meaning witchdoctors can only acquire these body parts from underground organ hunters.

Cases similar to that of the Kenyan drivers, where people disappear mysteriously, only for their bodies to be discovered several days later minus various body parts are so many in the continent today that they are treated as routine crimes in some countries.

According to the South African Police Service Research Centre reports, there is a belief that body parts taken from live victims are rendered more potent by their screams, which means victims must be subjected to pain before death.

Ritual killings have been reported in Mozambique where the country’s Human Rights League has blamed them on the proliferation of witchdoctors from western Africa.

Authorities have also confirmed that although most of the organs trafficked in that country are for transplants, extraction of organs for witchcraft purposes also happens.

Human skin appears to be one of the most sought-after things by ritual killers in Africa. During the early 2000s, there were widespread cases of people being killed and skinned in the Mbeya region of Tanzania and Mwiki outskirts of Nairobi.

Investigations by the media and police revealed there was a high demand for human skin in Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa where it fetched $2,400 (Sh180,000) to $9,600 (Sh180,000) depending on the age of the victim.

Nigeria has the highest number of occult killings in the continent. Not surprisingly, the vice has found thematic expression in the country’s vibrant film industry.

According to Nigerian authorities, the killings are perpetrated by people commonly known as headhunters, who act at the behest of juju men.

Cases of children being abducted and ritually slaughtered are so many in southwest Nigeria that they once sparked a spate of murderous protests and mob lynching that left more than 20 suspected kidnappers dead.

The murder in London of a Nigerian boy, which British police named “Boy Adam” for lack of positive identification, in September 2001, brought to international attention to Nigeria’s ritual killings.

Forensic examinations on Adam’s torso, found floating in River Thames, revealed that he was a native of Yoruba Plateau in Nigeria and the state of the cadaver indicated a style of ritual killing practised in West and Southern Africa.

Child Abductions a Worrying Rising Trend in Uganda

Kindly watch the video here watch?v=LtNraQDU7YQ&feature=player_embedded

Stolen children found. Source NTV Uganda 18th June 2012

Police in Uganda were able to find two children who had been missing for the last three months. These children Simon Kaijuka, four years old and  Prince Kijuka four months old were then immediately united to their parents who were very emotional. Prince Kijuka was only one month old when he was abducted. The two children were stolen stolen from their parents in Nabisalu zone in Makindye division.

The police were able to nab Ms Sylvia Nakanwagi who was suspected to have abducted the two children. The police had launched a three months manhunt after the report about loss of the children.  Four months old Prince Kijuka who by the time of his abduction was just one month old looked emaciated while his older brother Simon Kaijuka had a wound on his left leg. Later the boy was able to share of his ordeal to his parents. Whenever he would ask to be taken to his parents, he would be beaten thoroughly. There are are clear marks of heavy lashes on the boy. On the other hand the woman used to feed the boy on sugar and water. The parents of the children share their ordeal of the three months they were separated from their children here.

The police said that they were going to bring the charges against Ms Nkanwagi using the Anti trafficking law and the penal code.

Elsewhere the police a  Ms Vicky Natukunda in Makerere was arrested for allegedly staying with a 13 years old child for close to six months and not informing her parents or the relevant authorities. The 13 year old girl who was under the custody of the suspect had moved out of her home for a period of more than six months after claiming that she was being mistreated by her step parents. A claim which the police are doubting and think that it is possible that this is another case of abduction and the girl was coached on what to say to the police or other people who come into contact with her.  According to police, this was illegal custody of a child. The woman in question denied staying with the child for six months and said that she had been staying with the child for only ten days. The villagers said that  the little girl had been mistreated, she would move around the village asking for food. The culprit was found coaching the child to lie to the police that she had been with her fr only 10 days. Investigations are ongoing and appropriate charges will be brought against Ms. Natikunda once the police have finished their investigations. For more on this story kindly follow this story on NTV Uganda here.

Sex slavery for East African women despite 50 years of independence

Story in the East African of 6th May 2012 by Joachim Buwembo

So, when are we going to get serious about the trafficking of girls from East Africa? Recent reports indicate that 600 young Ugandan ladies who were lured to Iraq with promises of jobs like working in supermarkets are now unaccounted for. And who is so naïve as to imagine that so many black women who cannot speak Arabic just merged into the crowd like they would in America?

And if the less exposed Uganda can supply 600 sex slaves to just one country, what about Kenya and Tanzania, which have greater exposure to foreign “opportunities”? What about Rwanda, where most girls have features that are supposedly marketable out there?

We are seeing more media reports of girls being lured to places like Malaysia for “good” jobs and the minute they touch down in the promised land, the traffickers confiscate their passports and start them on a life of slavery until they become too weak and their captors kill them off. Some bodies have been brought back home with unbelievable signs of torture. The question is, which government departments are supposed to stop innocent girls being lured into sex slavery and eventual, accelerated death?

When HIV/Aids struck, it was the ministries of health that had to set up programmes to combat the epidemic. And things worked well until donor cash started coming in and the programmes became a sham, but awareness had been created on how to avoid infection and treat the infected. Now who is going to create awareness that job offers abroad can lead to slavery and death? If we wait for donor projects to fight trafficking, the vultures will do what they have done to the HIV/Aids money.

What I find most painful is that most girls who get trafficked are promised jobs paying salaries of $500 per month. This is money that someone can earn at home in the agriculture sector if they are just shown the right thing to do. For a poor woman to sell all she has and borrow from relatives to purchase a ticket that leads her to the most horrible things being done to her and then death, all in search of $500 — such things should not happen to nations that have been independent for 50 years. All the victims were born after Independence, only to end up in foreign slavery.
At least if the girls were being lured to Europe and America, they would have recourse to the law if their employers turned out to be traffickers. But when one is lured to a part of the world where a black person is accorded the same or less dignity than a dog, the chances of escaping slavery are nearly nil.

Stories have been published of women who have painfully left their children home to go and work “for a couple of years and return to invest,” only to end up in the worst form of slavery. Maybe I am ignorant but I am not aware of government programmes in this region that have made every girl aware of the dangers of pursuing job offers in “promising” new destinations outside the traditional ones — America and Western Europe. The least the governments can do is create awareness ,so that if some girls still take up the poisoned offers, they do so aware of the risks.

Joachim Buwembo is a Knight International fellow for development journalism. E-mail: buwembo@gmail.com

A Tourist Sexually abuses over 50 under 10 Ugandan Girls

More on this story here and here and here and here and here

A Turkish tourist a Mr. Emin Barro aged 53 sexually  abused more than 50 girls aged below 10 years. The tourist, who also took their photographs, recorded them on video and uploaded the ghastly images on the internet. Barro was sentenced on Monday 26th by a Ugandan court to two years jail sentence or o pay a fine of Ugandan Shillings 6 million. He was taken to Luzira Maximum prison to serve his sentence. Later he paid his fine and was released. After ourcry from the media  and the civil society that the sentence given was not commensurate to the nature of the crime he was re-arrested and he is yet to face fresh charges. Barro is said to have paid all his victims between Ushs. 2000 to 5000.  In a study done by ANNPCAN, it was found that there are many sex tourists along the Jinja beaches and also many sex abusers take advantage of the economic vulnerability of their victims.

Sad Ugandan Girls Story of Enslavement for sex

Find original article in the Daily Nation of 24th March 2012 here

Sitting at a table in a run-down bar on the edge of Ugandan capital Kampala, Stella Kobusingye stares into the distance as she recalls the tangle of lies and deceit that led to her sex-slavery ordeal.

Struggling to support her young son and sickly mother with the income from a small shop, last year Kobusingye heard about a job opportunity earning $800 a month working at a Ugandan-owned boutique in Malaysia.

After double- and then triple-checking that the job seemed genuine, Kobusingye sold her shop, paid for a passport and bought a visa for China, where middlemen told her she needed transit, before being handed a ticket and boarding a plane.

But when she arrived in China, she was met by a Ugandan woman, taken to a hotel where scores of other Ugandan girls were staying and told she now owed $7,000 for the airfare.

“There were no jobs there, they had lied to me — the only thing they had taken me there for was prostitution,” Kobusingye, who asked for her name to be changed, told AFP.

That night, a Nigerian man knocked on the door and said he had paid to have sex with her. Kept prisoner in her hotel room and with her passport taken away, for the next few weeks Kobusingye was forced — sometimes brutally — to sleep with up to five Nigerian men each night.

To scare her into silence, Kobusingye says her captors took her to a Ugandan witchdoctor there who used her fingernails and pubic hair to perform rituals.

Kobusingye’s story is typical of a growing number of young and vulnerable Ugandan women whom officials say are being duped into travelling abroad — particularly to countries in the Far East and Middle East — and then forced into prostitution.

In a country with massive unemployment and few opportunities, posters in shopping malls around Kampala advertise opportunities for well-paying jobs or studies abroad.

It is almost impossible to say how many Ugandan girls have been trafficked abroad but officials estimate in Malaysia alone — a country with visa-free travel for Ugandans and growing economic ties — there are currently about 600 Ugandan women in forced prostitution.

There are no figures available for the number of trafficked women in China.

During a recent visit to Kampala, Hajah Noraihan, a Malaysian working as Uganda’s honorary consul in Kuala Lumpur, flicked through a series of horrifying pictures to show what happens to the girls who refuse — the face of a young woman thrown from a third-floor balcony, the body of another brutally murdered on a bedroom floor.

In the past two years, at least three Ugandan girls have been killed in Malaysia, she said.

Since late last year, Malaysian police have cracked down on the prostitution rings. In a single raid in October, 21 Ugandan women were discovered at just one location and there are around 60 currently being detained by Malaysian authorities.

With the help of the International Organisation for Migration, in the past five months 14 girls have been brought back to Uganda, Noraihan says.

Now Ms Noraihan, a native of Kuala Lumpur, is pressing authorities in Uganda to deal with the problem at its source.

“We really need to see action on this, not just talk, not just reports. We need to see action on it and now,” she says.

That pressure seems to be paying off.

Although several of those suspected of trafficking girls to Malaysia have already been arrested, critics say authorities have been sluggish or too poorly funded and trained to effectively crack down on those behind the rings.

Now though, officials from the immigration department to law enforcement agencies and presidential advisers have started meeting on the issue and a group of lawmakers is pushing to visit Malaysia to investigate further.

But public awareness of the threat remains perilously low and the trafficking rings are highly organised and increasingly sophisticated, said Asan Kasingye, director of the Interpol office in Kampala.

“The criminals, these international rings, they are also working against us. Instead of taking 10 girls, they might take one a week and if you go to the airport and there is a person going to Malaysia she will have documents saying she is going for studies,” Kasingye said.

Uganda is just one of many sub-Saharan countries affected by sex trafficking. Other countries affected include South Africa, Nigeria, Malawi, Cape Verde, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Ghana, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Zambia.

After attempting to find a way to flee China, Kobusingye’s captors sent her to Malaysia, where they thought it would be easier to keep her.

But at Kuala Lumpur airport, immigration officials stopped Kobusingye. During several months in detention there she had a miscarriage.

Then she was told she had been infected with HIV.

Kobusingye was eventually sent back to Uganda with assistance from the International Organisation for Migration and the Malaysian consul.

Now she is trying to rebuild her life and start up a second-hand clothes shop. (AFP)

600 Ugandan girls ‘victims of Malaysia sex trade’

African victims of sex trafficking narrate their stories. At least 600 Ugandan girls have reportedly been forced into Malaysia’s sex trade. FILE | AFRICA REVIEW |
By PHILIPPA CROOMEPosted Wednesday, February 15  2012 at  12:41

At least 600 Ugandan girls have been forced into Malaysia’s sex trade in what has become a human trafficking epidemic, a foreign diplomat has said.

Hajah Noraihan, the Malaysian consul to Uganda, said despite an early warning to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2008 when the number of trafficked girls stood at 30, the constant flow of victims had not slowed.

She said Malaysian intelligence indicated 10 girls continued to fall through the cracks of Uganda’s immigration and labour systems daily.

“Nothing was done and this is what happened,” Ms Noraihan said.

Malaysia is currently on a US State Department watch list for not having shown adequate evidence of its efforts to combat the scourge.

 However, it has been working to curb the illegal practice after a raid last October in which 21 Ugandan girls were freed from forced prostitution.

Only five of these have since returned to Uganda, while the rest were being held in a Malaysian detention centre, Ms Noraihan said.

A total of 60 girls were being held on fraudulent visa charges as a result of an ongoing immigration sweep.

The line between girls who were “caught” or “saved” as Ms Noraihan termed them, was often a matter of technicality. A victim’s silence or shame could see them face criminal charges instead of being brought back to Uganda, she said.

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