KPN holds the training on Results Oriented Report Writing and Monitoring and Evaluation

Post by Bridged Faida, KARDS

Michael Ochieng the Director of Africa Peace Point (APP) training KPN members on M&E Framework

Michael Ochieng the Director of Africa Peace Point (APP) training KPN members on M&E Framework

For pictures of this event kindly visit here
The Kenya Peace Network (KPN) training on Results Oriented Report Writing and Monitoring and Evaluation was held on the 6th to 9th May 2014 at Kolping Center, Kilimambogo. It was organized by the Capacity building Cluster comprising of ISMM and KARDS being assisted by the KPN executive committee. The KPN capacity building activities are supported by Mensen met een Missie, a Dutch based mission support organization.

In attendance were representatives from DECESE, SOLWODI, IRCK, HAART, KARDS, APP, RAPADO, St. Martin CSA, CYU, KECOSCE, CNDI and Trace Kenya. Fr. Joseph Caramaza of ISMM facilitated the results oriented and report writing training while Michael Ochieng of APP facilitated the monitoring and evaluation framework training. Out of one reason or another a few organizations were not able to attend. Members of the Executive Committee who graced the training included Eric Odongo the executive secretary, Michael Ochieng and Vincent Okonya. The former Chair person of KPN the Rev Sasaka also graced the training. In welcoming the participants the executive committee members expressed their satisfaction that there was an improvement in gender representation and also referred participants to the capacity assessment document of 2013. Vincent Okonya emphasized that good reports are a great help in the KPN fundraising endeavors.

Fr. Caramaza led participants explore the essence of focused writing in tracking project impacts at different stages of project life cycle and in line with planned results. Topics tackled included media theory, interpersonal communication, barriers to communication and communication for advocacy. Participants discussed media work, media language, verbal and non-verbal communication, ways in which communication is achieved, frameworks through which messages are understood, laws that regulate these frameworks, the preparation of a newsletter and the choice newsletter contents. The inclusion of drama, images and videos in stories also formed an interesting part of the discussion. Lastly the facilitator led a discussion on the preparation for an interview and use of PowerPoint in presentations. The participant also wrote individual stories, sample newsletters and did a research on topics of choice in group setting. The reports were assessed jointly and areas of improvement made.

Michael facilitated the sessions on monitoring and evaluation (M&E). M&E was defined, its use, main objectives, what it involves, its purpose, participatory monitoring and evaluation, difference between monitoring and evaluation, why to monitor and evaluate and what to monitor and evaluate. In addition the logical framework was discussed and the participants were assisted to develop it and understand its logic. Other topics explored included results based monitoring and evaluation, results based reporting, risks, assumptions and the differences between programs and projects. Lastly, the participants were helped understand what decision making is, why data is important, data versus information, users and providers of data, principles of data quality, why users and producers must work together, data sources steps to using routine information in project/program and when would managers raise questions taken through data use in decision making.

After the training participants expressed the fact that they had learnt new skills and new insights that would be of great benefit to their organizations. Some of the skills they learnt included report and story writing, understanding the logical framework, monitoring and evaluation, newsletter preparation and proposal writing. Most were appreciative of shared experiences from other organizations. They also expressed the fact that what they had learnt would certainly be practiced and shared with other staff and help in bettering their organizational practice.

The participants also made suggestions on future areas for capacity building. These included Team building, further training on logical framework, fundraising/proposal writing, data presentation and visualization, knowledge management for organizations, proposal writing with respect to different agencies, documentation, data analysis, budgeting, and theory of change. Participants expressed the fact that they would need a certificate of attendance. This as an issue was be taken over by the Capacity Building Cluster and the KPN Executive Committee.
During the training the capacity building cluster took time to introduce the questionnaire on past capacity building activities. It was generally agreed that this questionnaire would be sent to directors who would fill them up. The participants were also updated that the training on organizational development would take place on the 8th to 11th July 2014.


Project sustainability I

More debate on this topic found here

Project sustainability entails strategies  put in place to ensure that project benefits  continue to be felt beyond the period of external donor support. There are various ways to look at this

1. Exit plan

The project should have exit plan, in absence of exit plan implementation team should work on preparing exit plan. The exit plan should have linking with the community and government department. So that the project intervention can take over and carryout support if needed. In any project or intervention all components are not scalable or sustainable, so it is important to identify which component is sustainable. Based on the well functioning component implementers can plan or design to make it sustainable.

2. Creating local ownership

Give  priority for creating sense of ownership and commitment among the targeted community to ensure sustainability after phasing out. One mechanism for sustainability is to elect executive committees from influential community members that own the project starting from the design. The committees are expected to secure the sustainability using local resources after end of the project. Some organizations sign tripartite agreement among themselves,  government administration and executive committee that become a platform to guarantees the sustainability of the projects.Lastly, weaning process by the partner funder should not be abrupt but be in line with the phasing out process. A strong sense of local ownership and genuine participation in design, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation by both men and women are critical to successful implementation and sustainable benefits, OECD (1989). Designs should build on local demand and initiatives. This requires that the stakeholders (i.e. the beneficiaries and local personnel) meaningfully participate and play a core role in the identification and design process. The idea should come from the community, belong to the community, and be a part of the community, it should be locally driven.

3. Building the capacity of beneficiaries

Sustainability is very key to any project and the key players to it are the beneficiaries themselves. When designing the project, we should ensure that the beneficiaries are allowed to get involved and create opportunities arising from the funded project. This will result into them exhibiting high ownership of the project. An example is given of a 2008 project created in Sichuan China after the earthquake. This project first trained women survivors on handcraft skills and secondly supported them to establish their own business. The third aspect of the assistance was in helping the women find marketing for their products. After the grant period, those women continued to run the business by themselves and are still benefiting from arising profits. 

4. Thinking process

Sustainability comes in where there is an abundance of locally available resources (human capital, land, water, vegetation and clean unpolluted air). It starts with a participatory involvement from project inception where the vision and the mission and mission of the endeavor are locally generated and not implanted. This is an empowering process that brings about mutual understanding between members and partners. The local communities organize themselves around the said endeavor, taking full control and responsibilities of their project/s (ownership) and being proud with their endeavor. External contributions only come to contribute to the local initiative instead of destroying it by replacing it.

5. Service Payment

Beneficiaries could also be made to pay for  service. It is believed that paying for the service contributes as a solutions to poverty by instilling discipline and responsibility. This solution is derived from market solutions that quash free charity debunking it to sentimentality. It is important however that the price of the services sold should lie in the space between market and charity if ever it is to assist the most vulnerable. For those not able to afford then pure charity could be explored.

6. Continuous local resource mobilization

There is need to  consider the aspect of continuous local resource mobilization to support the activity.  The establishment of a strong community organization, or the strengthening of the existing organizations which will continue to operate, manage the project efficiently and effectively after the end of funding is a critical step towards sustainability for all kinds of rural projects.

7. Maintenance and responsible use

Some projects such as warehouses, roads, building or training room will remain to be useable even when the period of project funding comes to an end. Even without external funding, the people in the community can maintain the infrastructure by providing volunteer services, i.e. cleaning and doing repairs. If there is a strong community organization, the leaders and members can take charge of these tasks as well as mobilizing other community members.

Sustainability of the green environment means that the project will not cause damage to the environment in the community. Examples of projects that may cause damage to the environment are roads that cause flooding due to improper design. If that happens, the road itself will be damaged eventually and the people will not support this project. Other projects such as handicrafts making which use plants available in the locale should ensure that the sources of raw materials for the project will not become extinct due to over harvesting. Therefore, the project should have a plan for re-planting or maintaining their natural habitat, in the case of forest flora and fauna. If any part of the project causes environmental damage, this project will be a burden instead to the people and will not be sustainable. 


Programme: Mombasa 2012 Counter Human Trafficking Symposium

The Third Mombasa Symposium for the Faith Based and Grassroots Organizations in East Africa

2012 Theme: Engendering the 2012 Kenya Electioneering Process and Victim Reintegration (click to go to the concept)

Organizers: CEA and Trace Kenya

Day 1: June 21st 2012

08.00-8.30  am: Arrival/Registration

08.30- 9.00 am: Introduction & Welcome remarks

9.00 to 10.00 Addressing Gender issues in the wake of the electioneering 2012 process in Kenya

Gender mainstreaming

Engendering the election process

Addressing political violence borne out of the electioneering process

 10.15-10. 45 am: The electoral process and human rights

11. 15- 12.15 pm: Introducing the Reintegration Challenge

Economic aspect of reintegration

psychosocial aspect of reintegration

Spiritual aspect of reintegration

Legal aspect of reintegration

12.20 to 1.00 Presentations and feedback

Psychological services in support to enhancing reintegration

3.00 to 4.00 pm

Psychological and trauma debriefing

Model interview for the victim of human trafficking

Addressing the needs of the victim of human trafficking immediate and long term

Day 2: 22nd June 2012

Community Intervention Reinforcing Reintegration

8.30 to 9.00 am:

Family role in the reintegration process of victims of human trafficking

How Community support can mitigate on the  reintegration process

Social stigma as a challenge to the  reintegration process

The role of social support structures in the reintegration process: Mosques, Churches, schools, hospitals etc

Practical Issues

10.45- 11.15 am

Referral      systems and information sharing to enhance reintegration of human      trafficking victim

Social service, FBOs ,CSOs and government roles in the reintegration process of the victim of human trafficking

The role of the media in enhancing the reintegration process for the victims of human trafficking

Monitoring and Evaluation

11. 15- 1.00 pm

Reintegration interventions impact assessment using case analysis

Knowledge management for the improvement of reintegration process

Networking and Collaboration for a peaceful electioneering process and for enhancing victim integration 

2.00-4.00 pm

Social networking to enhance successful reintegration on one hand and as a strategy to contribute to a peaceful electioneering process in Kenya (Constantine Deus, Organizational Devt. Consultant, Dar es Salaam)

Forum Conclusion: The Organizers.



Njuki  Githethwa & Faith Mwende of  KCOMNET TEL: +254 00202379949



a paper presented during a counter human trafficking symposium for the faith based and grassroots organizations in east africa held at shalom house nairobi, 22nd to 24th november 2011


Established in 1995, the Kenya Community Media Network (KCOMNET) is a national network of individuals, media practitioners, community communication groups, media professionals and non-governmental organizations committed to the promotion of community media and development communication in Kenya. KCOMNET advocates for the creation and sustainability of community-based media owned, controlled, and produced by, for, and about communities.

Our Vision

To be the key driver of the national community media movement and voice of social change in Kenya.

Our Mission

To champion and popularize community communication initiatives through representation, capacity building and policy advocacy for transformative social change in Kenya.


“Community Communication-Giving Voice to Communities”

Our Key Objectives

The Kenya Community Media Network has, but is not limited to the following three key objectives: –

(i)     To lobby for the establishment of a dynamic communication regime in Kenya that includes community media as a third sector after public and private media

(ii)  To execute a rigorous training programme for community communication groups to make them strong and vibrant

(iii)      To act as a capacity building arm for individual groups and for zonal joint communication groups efforts.

Our Programs

KCOMNETS main programs include:

1.      Community Radio and Radio Listening & Production Groups

2.      Community based Information Resources and Documentation Centers

3.      Community based Folk Media i.e. art, drama, puppetry, song and dance

4.      Community driven Video Production

5.      Community Newsletters

The role of Community Media in Society

Community media is any form of media that is created and controlled by a community, either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The World Bank, and the European Commission recognize community media as a crucial element in a vibrant and democratic media system.

Community media is a platform which enables the “voiceless” to have a “voice”. This kind of media exists in many countries in all continents, and in media systems they usually stand in-between public broadcasting and private media outlets.

Experience has shown that participation is the key defining feature of community media; it is what places community media outside of traditional media models, in which audiences are passive receivers of messages. In the community media model, senders and receivers together create messages and meaning through participatory processes.

Community media enables marginalised communities to speak about issues that concern them at the local level, creating linkages between development, democracy and community media. This presents a snap-shot of community needs and aspirations and allows a community to map its future using the bottom-up approach. The historical philosophy of community media is to use this medium as the voice of the voiceless, and the mouthpiece of oppressed people, or by communities that have not been served by conventional communication structures.

More so, community media offers space for creativity and is also a tool for empowerment. Besides this, community media is able to integrate different mediums of communication e.g. drama, song and dance, storytelling, puppetry, radio listenership groups and community radio stations.

The role of Community Media Groups in tackling Human Trafficking

An effective media can raise the awareness level and can also bring reduce vulnerability to human trafficking and other crimes. Community media is capable of performing the following roles in preventing human trafficking:

§  Education and Training: This can take the form of workshops, songs, drama, dance, storytelling, poetry, live music, bands, community newsletters puppetry and radio listenership groups among others.

§  A Channel for Communication and Discussion: One of the roles of media is to open the channels for communication and foster discussions about human trafficking and implications on women, girls, men and boys. Addressing human trafficking in the community radio program can have an enormous impact on the society.

§  A vehicle for Creating a supportive and enabling environment: Community media can be instrumental in breaking the silence that envelopes the practice and in making positive changes in the society. For example, Radio Mang’elete which use the Kikamba language to address issues of the community.

§  Education through entertainment: For creating an efficacious awareness about human trafficking, the messages need to be informative, educative as well as entertaining as these are mutually exclusive.

§  Mainstreaming: Broadcasters need to mainstream the human trafficking issue across a number of programs. A coordinated, multifaceted campaign has greater impact than a single programme. Documentaries, concerts, songs, drama, public service announcements, competitions, hotlines, books and websites can be linked together to reinforce awareness, information and messages about human trafficking.

§  Putting human trafficking on the News agenda and encouraging leaders to participate: The more the leaders see and hear about human trafficking in news the greater the resources they invest in anti-human trafficking strategies, which in turn leads to increased media coverage of the issue and helps to sustain public awareness which again has an impact on leaders’ priorities.

§  Making every citizen a “reporter”: Citizens reporting like journalists may be the only way for human rights abuses and other violations of a criminal or environmental nature to be brought to face broad public scrutiny.

§  Encouraging participation: From an audience perspective, it means that it can influence the content in a very proactive way and it enables individuals to access a readymade platform through which they can share their opinions.

  • Policy Advocacy Work: Through campaigns against human trafficking aimed at raising public awareness, to give chance to women, men and young people to contribute to activities against human trafficking and to lobby government response to human trafficking issues. Awareness raising can also be pursued through the production and distribution of information education materials, using the media for a wider reach as well as visual materials, using the media for a wider reach as well as visual materials in public areas.
  • Organizing regular dialogue forums at the grassroots to disseminate relevant information on human trafficking.


Community media is a very essential tool for development and can be used to disseminate information on human trafficking. Additionally, community media plays a crucial role in addressing issues of the community and offers a chance for debate on everyday community issues. There is need therefore to collaborate and create linkages in order to use community media as a means to report news differently from the mainstream media.

Countering Human Trafficking Through Visual Arts

By Mike Mungai, Bwana Mdogo Arts (BMA)

Follow Bwana Mdogo Arts and other artists against human trafficking by liking their facebook page. Artists sharing this passion too are welcome to join in.

The  visual arts speak to the eye in such an effective manner that no any other communication medium does. What impresses the eye, gets priority in the dissemination process.

Albert Einstein commenting on the  situation of the Black Americans said, “the greatest disease in America today is the treatment of the negro”. Today however the greatest disease world over today is  human trafficking. Efforts to address human trafficking should traverse all factors and processes that contribute to its continuity. Though this battle is hard,  in our different but small ways; we can prevent one more person, or two or three or a hundred thousand from falling prey to human trafficking.

Bwana Mdogo Arts is an organization established to educate, sensitize and entertain the population through the production of graphic story lines (comics), fine art images, cartoons and posters.

Bwana Mdogo Arts has a vision of educating, addressing issues of social economic justice, promoting peace and spreading joy through visual arts. The main premise of this budding organization is that, it is much easier for masses to understand that which they see. As such, Bwana Mdogo Arts strives to capture and graphically present real situations that run against the principles of common justice or those that contribute to the common good in a unique but ordinary ways. At times evil or good are latent and hard to decipher. However the process by which either good or bad occurs can easily be observed. In reality however, people focus on the latency and hence are by passed by important events. The main hope of BMA is that its illustrations will challenge the masses to become more humane and in turn help in the behaviour change.

Since 2009, BMA came up with a number of illustrations on human trafficking. The first and main one was posted on the KARDS counter trafficking portal. This illustration  introduced the online directory. In the picture were a group of people (a policeman, a Maasai, a pastor and a graduate) standing in a line and a small boy trying to identify a potential human trafficker. The title of the image was “who is a trafficker?” this is a question that is tricky to answer, since given different situations maybe all of the characters in the image contributed to trafficking in persons, one way or the other.

This was followed by more illustrations that culminated in the cover image on the KARDS-MM study. Over the years, Bwana Mdogo Arts as an entity has continued to come up with more and more illustrations, for use on banners, flyers, as posters and even illustrations for books. Some of these illustrations are posted on this blog. Click here to get to the counter human trafficking arts.

Drums, Poems, Drama and Dance Against Human Trafficking

By Mike Kasongo

Topmark High School is located in Riruta Satelite. Part of the concern of the school has been to empower students from poor families by offering them education. The school also takes a lead in preventing  exploitation of the vulnerable youth.

On 19th Jan 2012,  Fern Poetry and African Sanalimu Arts Ensemble  visited  Top Mark High School where they performed their play Blue Heart, Joy’s Story for the first time. There were all in total about  10 artists and  the school had a total of  100 students. The teachers were 5 in number. Sanalimu and Fern are part and parcel of the Kenya Blue Hearts Grassroots Initiative.

The occasion started with an introduction from all parties in attendance. The head teacher Mr. Evans Shivachi gave the opening remarks by welcoming all in attendance and also informing them on the activities and the plan of the day. After the introduction Bernard Muhia of Fern Poetry quickly took all the participants through their expectations of the workshop which were grouped into the following four areas.

a)    Understanding human trafficking

b)    What leads to human trafficking

c)    How does human trafficking happen

d)    How can we detect potential human traffickers

After the introduction by Bernard, Viona Wamuyu one of the poets from Fern Poetry recited the Kaa Chonjo poem, then Mike Kasongo  of  Africa sanalimu Art Ensemble launched the narrative play along with songs and dance also asking question and letting the audience share with the rest about their knowledge and experiences of human trafficking.

 Drums beats, song, dance, poems, stories and drama are powerful educational tool and communication media in the communities. Fern Poetry and Sanalimu in their play “Blue Heart, Joy’s Story” enact the pain of human trafficking.

One student shared with the rest how her cousin who was supposed to get a job in Dubai only to realize that the plane they had boarded was heading to Saudi Arabia. When  asked what her cousin did, she replied that her cousin did nothing. She didn’t know what she was supposed to do in such circumstances. Up to this day she is still in Saudi Arabia. NB more are posted on the you tube.

The play “Blue Heart, Joy’s Story” is about a joy a child who lost her parents. As a result she was left with her aunt. As life became difficult Joy’s aunt persuaded the little Joy to drop from school.  Joy refused to drop from school and instead offered to help the aunt in the day today economic activities.  So Joy would then wake up very early, work in her aunt’s business and then later going to school. This was the beginning of many of her woes, as she would arrive at school when she was very tired. Later her predicaments changed and she found her self in a limbo of problems.

Later an old friend of Joy’s aunt took Joy to work in a flower company, promising her aunt big returns. Joy was faced with many other untold predicaments including sexual exploitation. Her whole life story is full of lamentations. The play ended with  the audience being asked to share  their feelings about the play. A brainstorming was done on what needs to be done in such circumstances. An important dilemma that arose as a result of the play was “what would be the right thing for Joy’s aunt to do and also Joy to do? Should the aunt feel obliged to apologize to Joy? Can Joy sue her aunt? If so, should she sue? What of if the aunt and all the culprits involved in Joy’s woes  do not realize that  what they did was wrong? Why should anyone mess up someone an innocent child or anyone else’s life? Can ignorance be used as a defense?

The students and teachers who attended the dramatized dance followed the dance keenly and were moved by the message it carried along.

Using RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate CTIP Endeavors

Consolation East Africa  in Collaboration with Tom Omwenga of Child AID Kenya

RE – AIM stands for Reach, Effectiveness orEfficacy, Adoption, Implementation and  Maintenance or sustainability. Its application to health interventions is applied in these slides

REACH is defined as The number, percent of target audience, and representativeness of those who benefit. Key Issues:  Does program reach those at highest risk or the most vulnerable?  Are different interventions required?

EFFECTIVENESS: Change in temporally appropriate outcomes, and impact on quality of life and anyadverse outcomes. Key Issues:  Logic model helps to clarify anticipated :  Logic model helps to clarify anticipated effects; quality of life provides common metric across conditions and interventions; anticipate
unintended consequences.

ADOPTION: Number, percent and representativeness of settings and clinicians who end up adopting the suggested methods for example the likelihood that 30% of recipients to a campaign will heed to the message of the campaign. Key Issues:  Need to focus on “denominator” and barriers among non-users.  Do initial adoptees include peer opinion leaders?

IMPLEMENTATION: Extent to which a program or policy is delivered consistently, and the time andcosts of the program. Key Issues:  Consistency across staff, program components, and time.  Balance between fidelity components, and time.  Balance between fidelity and local customization.

MAINTENANCE: Individual long-term effects and attrition.   Extent of continuation, discontinuation, modification, or sustainability of program. Are the changes being sustained as a result of the program? Key Issues:  Does attrition bias results; qualitative approaches to understanding program adaptation.

RE-AIM has been used by organizations to  to evaluate practicality and
generalizability of evidence-based interventions.  It uses both qualitative and quantitative data. It can also be used as an action research tool, a tool to aid in planning and networking. Hence in summary it helps understand the disparities i.e. who participates and who benefits; costs involved and cost effectiveness, the effects of different interventions and how to combine different factors to produce composite interventions.

RE-AIM therefore can be used for interventions that also do:

Reach large numbers of people, especially those who can most benefit

It can widely be adopted  by different settings

Be consistently implemented by staff members with moderate levels of training and expertise

Produce replicable and long-lasting effects (and minimal negative impacts) at reasonable cost

Organizations working to address the challenge of human trafficking could use this tool to assess their interventions in social support, legal assistance, prevention, advocacy and victim support.

The Child AID Kenya an organization working to address the challenge of Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation has been using the  RE –AIM framework  as a tool during different phases in  project planning and implementation. Here they use a different sets of questions for each element of RE-AIM.



What percentage of target population will participate in the program?

  • These are the groups  we reached:
    • Professionals at provincial administration office across- Area Advisory Councils (AAC) level:  Leadership for  area advisory councils (AACs), NGOs/CBOs who sit at AACs – participation in AACs:

Per AACs

  • 2 schools each, 2 teachers per school (guidance and counseling) especially involved in school life skills curriculum/or guidance and counseling teachers
  • Student Volunteers – at least 1 per AAC
  • Youth & sports coaches  – 2 per area
  • Community leaders, ex. faith based(pastors/Imam) and other leaders  in legal organized community groups, women, parents,  Area residents associations etc.
  • Business community/or Merchant networks. Ex. domestic workers’ employment bureaus/or Agencies; small bars and restaurant owners


  1. Will the program be effective?
  2. Is the program achieving the outcomes you set?
  3. Is the program producing unintended consequences?
  • Established a check list of actions to monitor at TOT organization level
  • Are organizations actually using the materials?


  1. What percent of targeted settings are estimated to participate?
  2. Are the participating settings representative of all targeted?
  • Do TOTs deliver trainings in their organizations?
    • Do Advisory committee plan activities for the following/next year?


  1. Will the program be delivered as intended? How?
  2. Are different components delivered as intended?What parts of the program are adaptable without consequences?
  • Do TOTs continue doing training?


  1. Does the program keep participants engaged? Produce long – lasting effects?
  2. Can organizations sustain the program over time?
  • Retention of knowledge by individual trainees.
  • Change in practice continues.
    • TOTs continue  to do training, does  advisory council develop plans/additional activities related to CSA/E prevention, are there other groups/settings in AAC that want to receive TOT training?
    • Advisory Committee continues to keep it in the plan.
    • Community  Members continue to generate new ideas for how to apply in their committee/community.

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