Surrogacy

By Bridged Faida

‘A couple just won a case about rent- a womb’

Surrogacy is not a imaginary issue any more, a judge recently ruled. It is real and many Kenyans are resorting to it for medical reasons and the state ought to protect such arrangements.
Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person or the genetic parents. Women are usually unable to have a baby because they might have medical complications that make pregnancy impossible. Those who carry the pregnancy, whether for a fee or for free, are known as surrogate hosts and the owner of the baby as the commissioning couple or genetic parents.

Traditional surrogacy: surrogate mothering can be accomplished in two ways, Most often, the sperm is implanted in the host by a procedure called artificial insemination. Here, the surrogate mother is either the genetic mother, or gestational mother, of the child. This method of surrogacy is sometimes called traditional surrogacy.

Gestational surrogacy: Less often, when the intended mother can produce fertile eggs but cannot carry a child to birth, the intended mother’s egg is removed combined with the husband’s or another man’s sperms in the process called the vitro fertilization, and implanted in the surrogate mother. This method is called gestational surrogacy.

For money or for charity?
Surrogacy arrangements are also categorized as either commercial or self- sacrificing. In commercial surrogacy, the host mother is paid a fee plus any expenses incurred in her pregnancy, while in self – sacrificing surrogacy, only the expenses incurred are paid.

Too posh to push? There have been growing concerns that this procedure, designed to have couples who would otherwise not have their own babies, is also being adopted by Nairobi’s nouveau riche, the type that has been pejoratively described as “too posh to push”. Medical experts, however, warn that surrogacy is not a procedure of convenience as a last recourse.

Kenya’s first test – tube babies that were delivered in Nairobi in 2006. Surrogacy in East Africa country, while still shrouded in secrecy, has been picking up with surrogates being paid as higher as $18,000 (ksh. 1.5 million).

There is a growing list of young Kenyan women who are renting out their wombs to carry other people’s pregnancies, with some being paid as much as Ksh. 1 million ( $ 12,000 ).
The trend that has in the past been seen as a resolution in developed countries for infertile women seeking to have their own children is increasingly gaining acceptance in Kenya.

Statistics shows almost 30 babies have been born in Nairobi by surrogate hosts, and these statistics are from just one clinic, the Nairobi IVF Centre Ltd, Fertility clinic. Here services offered include wide range of Assisted Reproductive Technologies, including IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) and ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) Egg and Sperm Donation. Gestation Surrogacy, Embryo and Sperm Cryopreservation, Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) Ovulation Induction and others. The Nairobi IVF Centre ltd is located in modern Medical Centre on Landmark Plaza, Argwings Kodhek Rd.

Most surrogate hosts experience the pain that immediately after delivery the baby is given to its parents; there is no any chance of her to see the baby.

Social Capital; A Perspective On Organizational Development

By Martin Ndichu
Social capital

Social Capital is almost a new concept in modern organizations, this is despite its long existence. Social capital refers to the networks, institutions and norms that mark and define the quality and quantity of interactions within individuals in a society, organization, project or business. In this context, social capital does not account for players within the network but acts to glue them together. It is evident that cohesion within any organization is a vital component for development and sustainability of that organization. This is mainly because of the effect it has on the degree of association of individuals or players within that organization or network.

There are several attributes that constitute social capital, these include; Trust, Reciprocity, Appreciation, Acceptance and tolerance among others. These attributes of social capital have an effect on organizational productivity and well-being of individual players and reduces the costs of doing business by facilitating coordination and cooperation within the organization. Trust among individuals within any context is vital in promoting transparency while on the other hand reciprocity of goodwill encourages continuity of healthy interrelations; it also eliminates the feeling of abuse among partners. Acceptance and tolerance of individuals within an organization regardless of educational background or qualification, disability, societal branding, race or religious affiliation goes a long way to promote self-esteem, self worth and organizational ownership by the individuals.

So what’s the impact of Social Capital on organizations? True to my word, organizations that nurture high-quality social capital have staffs and partners that demonstrate a high sense of obligation towards the organizations and collectively engage in the attainment of the ultimate goal of the organization. Such organizations experience low staff and partner turn over which in turn increases the prospect of success. On the contrary, organizations with little or no social capital exhibits low growth, poorly motivated staff with a high element of self centeredness. They worry much on what they get in return of their service to the organization than on the welfare of his fellows or the organization. This has the effect on the organization security both internally and externally, simply because most of the individual/partners may be unwilling to stand by the organization when it faces challenges of different kinds.

Building social capital can be fun and disappointing at the same time. This is mainly because it comes with a strong element of expectation. This is mutual, so as a leader in any organization as much as you would want to grow social capital within your fellows or partners ensure that the benefits accrued are mutual such that no one feels abused. Learn to note actions by your partners that desire your reciprocity and promptly act back. As an organization, appreciate the little efforts made on daily basis by your staffs because they may end up being the best they ever do before stagnating due to unmet expectations. Building social capital could constitute a big budgets such as increase in remuneration, luxury holiday and excursions, but could also be done in simple ways in the day to day operation of the organization. Try volunteering your special skills to an organization, mentor someone of a different ethnic or religious group, avoid gossip, Say “Thanks” to colleagues and support staff and the likes.

To pen off, a message to managers and officers in charge of project, human resource, public relations, chairpersons of youth groups, women groups, CBOs, NGOs, aspiring entrepreneurs and other organizations in general government included; observe the element of social capital within your networks and you will not have to worry about how to meet your goal, how you will accomplish your tasks or with whom to share your plans. Caution though, social capital is an investment of a kind so invest wisely and please have a fair interest rate that won’t hurt incase of bad debt!!…won’t you? All the best.      

 

 

Adopt a Light

Christine Wambui

 

I believe that it is possible to light up the whole of Kenya (Esther Passaris). 

 

Adopt-a-light was an initiative that was spearheaded in 2002 through self-funding corporation; with the intention of making highways and streets safer by lighting up Nairobi through advertising streetlights infrastructure. The city council of Nairobi paved way and gave the project the license to kick start.

Esther Passaris is best known for spearheading this business model which has a social positive impact in the Kenyan business. For the project to succeed, she brought on board powerful partners from the private sector to collaborate with the city council and Kenyan parliament through the Constituency development fund (CDF). Upon the early stages of the project, it was tricky for Passaris since the Nairobi city council was reluctant and did not fully back up the initiative.

Adopt-a-light initiative became active in 2005 in the slums; the aim of the project was to: Improve the quality of people’s lives by ensuring that public spaces — slums, streets, parks, neighborhoods — remain well lit after sunset through an effective partnership between the private and public sectors to finance and facilitate the installation of lights and in so doing, to improve security, safety and aesthetics of public areas, enabling populations to more fully enjoy their lives and participate in economic and recreational activity while at the same time providing financial sponsors with quality advertising services.” (Source: UN Habitat Business Award Report on Best Practice).

This project did not lack challenges. It was a problem to access the slums since they are densely populated. So as to overcome this challenge, local leaders and administrators had to join hands in order to find the most convincing locations to set up the lights. Also there were families which were relocated so as to provide space.

The steadman group also known as synovate Ipsos kenya limited conducted an impact study of the Adopt a light project. It found  that the rate of insecurity had greatly reduced in the slum areas and the residents were able to conduct their businesses  until late hours. The project had improved their social lives immensely as they were able to extend their income earning hours and walk home without fears.