Social Capital; A Perspective On Organizational Development

By Martin Ndichu
Social capital

Social Capital is almost a new concept in modern organizations, this is despite its long existence. Social capital refers to the networks, institutions and norms that mark and define the quality and quantity of interactions within individuals in a society, organization, project or business. In this context, social capital does not account for players within the network but acts to glue them together. It is evident that cohesion within any organization is a vital component for development and sustainability of that organization. This is mainly because of the effect it has on the degree of association of individuals or players within that organization or network.

There are several attributes that constitute social capital, these include; Trust, Reciprocity, Appreciation, Acceptance and tolerance among others. These attributes of social capital have an effect on organizational productivity and well-being of individual players and reduces the costs of doing business by facilitating coordination and cooperation within the organization. Trust among individuals within any context is vital in promoting transparency while on the other hand reciprocity of goodwill encourages continuity of healthy interrelations; it also eliminates the feeling of abuse among partners. Acceptance and tolerance of individuals within an organization regardless of educational background or qualification, disability, societal branding, race or religious affiliation goes a long way to promote self-esteem, self worth and organizational ownership by the individuals.

So what’s the impact of Social Capital on organizations? True to my word, organizations that nurture high-quality social capital have staffs and partners that demonstrate a high sense of obligation towards the organizations and collectively engage in the attainment of the ultimate goal of the organization. Such organizations experience low staff and partner turn over which in turn increases the prospect of success. On the contrary, organizations with little or no social capital exhibits low growth, poorly motivated staff with a high element of self centeredness. They worry much on what they get in return of their service to the organization than on the welfare of his fellows or the organization. This has the effect on the organization security both internally and externally, simply because most of the individual/partners may be unwilling to stand by the organization when it faces challenges of different kinds.

Building social capital can be fun and disappointing at the same time. This is mainly because it comes with a strong element of expectation. This is mutual, so as a leader in any organization as much as you would want to grow social capital within your fellows or partners ensure that the benefits accrued are mutual such that no one feels abused. Learn to note actions by your partners that desire your reciprocity and promptly act back. As an organization, appreciate the little efforts made on daily basis by your staffs because they may end up being the best they ever do before stagnating due to unmet expectations. Building social capital could constitute a big budgets such as increase in remuneration, luxury holiday and excursions, but could also be done in simple ways in the day to day operation of the organization. Try volunteering your special skills to an organization, mentor someone of a different ethnic or religious group, avoid gossip, Say “Thanks” to colleagues and support staff and the likes.

To pen off, a message to managers and officers in charge of project, human resource, public relations, chairpersons of youth groups, women groups, CBOs, NGOs, aspiring entrepreneurs and other organizations in general government included; observe the element of social capital within your networks and you will not have to worry about how to meet your goal, how you will accomplish your tasks or with whom to share your plans. Caution though, social capital is an investment of a kind so invest wisely and please have a fair interest rate that won’t hurt incase of bad debt!!…won’t you? All the best.      




Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques



Tools and Techniques

Andrew Otsieno

Organization Development Consultant

KM Training Overview

•   knowledge/information


•   relationship mapping

•   telling your story

connecting people to information and knowledge

•   case study

•   rapid evidence review

•   knowledge banks

connecting people to people

•   communities of practice

•   peer assist

•   knowledge café

•   knowledge marketplace

organisation improvement

•   gone well/not gone well

•   after action review

•   retrospective review

•   knowledge exchange

“When an old person dies, a library is lost.”

An African proverb—

Introduction to

knowledge/information management

Knowledge management is defined as a conscious strategy of

getting the right knowledge

to the right people

at the right time

and helping people share

and put information into action

in ways that strive to improve effectiveness.

Activity 1.1.1 –

Definition of terms

•   What is knowledge?

–   Be careful to differentiate between ‘data’, ‘information’, ‘knowledge’

and ‘wisdom’.

•   What is the difference between information management vs

knowledge management?

•   What are the benefits of knowledge management?

What is knowledge?

•   Data is the raw material that underpins information, for

example, facts, observations, statistics.

•   Information is data with some context or meaning attached.

•   Knowledge is information that has been put into productive use, made actionable. It is only of value when shared and applied!

•   Wisdom is knowledge that has been combined and enriched

by peoples’ insights and experience.

Information management vs

knowledge management

•   Information management deals with the structuring, organising, classifying and control of information throughout its ‘life cycle’.

•   It supports knowledge management by enabling people to access, share and ‘make sense’ of codified and tacit information.

•   The challenge of knowledge management is to determine what information within an organisation qualifies as


Benefits of knowledge management

•   Saving considerable time, money and effort…

–   by learning from others’ experience to find solutions more quickly.

•   Developing understanding…

–   of the challenges and solutions for organizational improvement.

•   Developing skills…

–   supporting timely professional development.

•   Improving results…

–   using the best knowledge to provide a foundation for new work.

•   Strengthening relationships…

–   so that people across the network can learn from each other.

Steps in knowledge transfer




Steps in Knowledge Transfer


Document              Identify

Activity 1.2.1 –

Relationship Mapping

•   Who are the

people you

interact with



Develop a


Map to

illustrate this.

To create a relationship map, please use an A4 plain

piece of paper…

•    In the centre of the paper draw a small circle or

oval and write your name in the centre.

•    Start mapping from the centre to the people, teams and organisations that you have relationships with in your working life. Please use full names and team titles.

•    The closer to the centre of the page, the closer the

relationship is.

•    By drawing lines with different thickness you can demonstrate the amount of dialogue between the relationships. The thicker the line, the more regular the dialogue.

Activity 1.3.1 –

Telling your story

Imagine being invited to speak where you will have five minutes

to talk about your organization. What story will you tell?

Suggestions to help you get started…

Reflect on your founding story

•    How did your organization get


•    Who founded it, and why?

•    What unmet need caused the

organization to be born?

Recall stories of changed lives

•    Think of a person that was confronted with a real—and often urgent—need

•    What did he or she do—with the help of your organization—to overcome that need?

•    How is he or she—and perhaps many others—different today as a result?



tools and


case study

rapid evidence


knowledge banks

(web databases)

What is a case study?


•   Narrative recording of a project’s progress and outcomes.

unique selling point

•   Share experiences with




A case study example template

1.     An informative title that encapsulates the key lesson learnt

2. summary

3.    key learning (up front)

4.     background to the problem

5.    main issues and problems in detail

6.    what was done – in chronological order

7.    outcomes and impact

8.    material resources required

9.     human resources required

10.  barriers and how they were overcome

11.  how could it be done better?

12.  contact for further information…

Activity 2.1.2 –

Preparing a human story case study

Narrate a human story that highlights the changes that the

project has brought about in the life of a beneficiary…

1.   General information on the beneficiary

2.   Situation prior to intervention

3.   Nature of involvement in the project

4.   Changes in life as a result of the project


Activity 2.1.3 – Case study

representing a model of good practice

Narrate an analysis of a particular strategy / approach

representing a model of good practice…

1.   Brief outline of problem situation

2.   Description of the approach used to address the problem

3.   Strengths and weaknesses of the approach

4.   Lessons learned

5.   Recommendations toward good practice

What is a rapid evidence review?


•   A systematic review of research and other evidence producing an overview of the knowledge base in a particular area.

unique selling point

•   An evidence baseline to enable new projects to build on what has gone on before.

Activity 2.2.1 –

How to run a rapid evidence review

1.   Ask participants to write on paper any

ideas and examples of work that relate

to the issue you are researching.

2.   Stick these examples on the wall around

the room and arrange them into themes.

3.   Group people according to the theme that contains their ideas or example of work.

4.   Run breakout groups by theme.

5.   Produce a report or document that summarises the discussion…

Issues you are

researching may


•    ‘Needs’ questions: What do people want or need?

•    Process questions: Why/how does it work?

•    Implementation questions: What is required to make it work?


Knowledge banks

(web databases)

•   Repositories of stored knowledge

(research / evidence / best

practice), captured through

various tools and techniques, and

shared via websites and toolkits.

unique selling point

•   Mass collection of accumulated knowledge in a specific area at your fingertips.



Activity 2.3.1 –

Listing relevant knowledge banks

Search and compile examples of knowledge banks of online services and resources which hold information, learning and support relevant to your area of work…

Activity 2.3.2 – Establishing and

managing a network knowledge bank

Discus the first steps and next steps as to how your network can

go about establishing and managing a knowledge bank.

Such a knowledge bank may provide authoritative case studies,

toolkits, discussion forums and a periodical e-bulletin.


tools and techniques

community of practice / knowledge network / professional network

peer assist

knowledge café

knowledge marketplace

What is a community of practice?


•   A group of people who share a common interest working together over an extended period to explore ways of working in a specific area of knowledge.

unique selling point

•   Learning from shared experiences; publishing best practice/position papers.

Activity 3.1.1                –

How to run a community of practice

Consider the following points as you take the first steps in setting up a community of practice:

•    Scope – What do you want to achieve? Who are your audience? What are

the boundaries?

•    Participants – Who can make a major contribution? Do they share common needs and interests?

•    Roles and responsibilities – Who are the experts, leaders, champions, facilitators?

•    Interest and involvement – How will you attract interest? How will you

engage participants? How will you develop your community?

•    Creating and sharing knowledge – How will you interact, learn and share?

•    Moving forward – How will you add value? How will you evolve?

What is a peer assist?


•   Gaining input and insight from experts/other people outside the team to reuse and reapply existing knowledge and experience.

unique selling point

•   First hand knowledge transfer, accessing the organisation’s knowledge base.

Activity 3.2.1 –

How to run a peer assist

Use the following steps to

practice with running a peer


•   appoint a facilitator

•   select the participants– choose participants who have diverse knowledge, skills, and experience.

•   share information –

this is done by dividing the

meeting time into 4 parts:

1.   Clarify purpose (receivers)

2.   Encourage the peers to ask questions and give feedback (peers)

3.   Analyse what’s been heard


4.   Present the feedback and

agree actions (peers)

What is a knowledge café?


•   A group of people having an open, creative conversation in an informal environment on

a topic of mutual interest.

unique selling point

•   Informal learning through dialogue. Each person has a responsibility to contribute.

Activity 3.3.1 –

How to run a knowledge café

Use the following steps to practice with running a knowledge


1.   Identify a question relevant to those participating.

2.   Arrange yourselves into groups to discuss the question.

3.   Each participant in turn shares their knowledge and experience without interruption, giving everyone an opportunity to talk.

4.   After each participant has shared, the group continues the discussion together.

5.   The groups should eventually reconvene to exchange ideas

and findings…

What is a knowledge marketplace?


•   Allows the matching of a knowledge requirement with someone with expertise (like a dating service for knowledge).

unique selling point

•   Starts the connection of people to people, people to documents, and documents to people.

Activity 3.4.1 –

How to run a knowledge marketplace

Within the participating team or group, each person should take

the following steps…

1.   Identify your knowledge requirements – these could be

areas where you feel there are gaps in your knowledge.

2.   Identify your knowledge offers – these would be areas where you have knowledge and experience to share with others.

3.   Collect and record in a form some basic information to start the ‘connection and collection process’, for example: name, job title, organisation, email address, topic.


tools and techniques

gone well / not gone well after action review

(formative evaluation)

retrospective review

(summative evaluation)

knowledge exchange

What is a gone well, not gone well?


•   Quick debrief at the end of an event concentrating on good points and items for improvement.

unique selling point

•   Tacit knowledge capture and feedback about effectiveness of the event.

Activity 4.1.1 –

How to run a gone well, not gone well

•   Conduct a facilitated session to get feedback. Use a flipchart to record the information. Divide the flip chart down the middle into two columns: ‘Gone well’ and ‘Not gone well’.

–   The facilitator asks the group to comment on anything to do with the event that went well or not so well.

–   This could include content, delivery style, catering, room layout, discussion topics, materials used, plus whatever people want to raise in relation to the day.

–   All positive and negative comments are written into the respective

columns on the flipchart.

What is an after-action review?


•   Quick discussion at the end of a short project or key stages of an activity reflecting on the current position and future actions.

unique selling point

•   Tacit knowledge capture of lessons learnt e.g. noted minutes of project meetings.

Activity 4.2.1 –

How to run an after-action review

Conducted as soon as possible

after the specified stage,

project or event.

It is structured as an informal brainstorming session to build consensus on the following questions…

1.   What was supposed to


2.   What actually happened?

3.   Why were there


4.   What did we learn?

5.   What are the lessons for

next time?

What is a retrospective review?


•   A formal process to evaluate the completion of an event, project or an activity to capture lessons learned.

unique selling point

•   Capture lessons learnt for future activities. Publish on internet or intranet.

Activity 4.3.1 –

How to run a retrospective review

A retrospective review can be run in various formats, including a

workshop or meeting with a facilitator and all stakeholders…

1.   Identify and review project objectives and deliverables.

2.   Identify and review the project plan and planned process.

3.   Discuss how success and lessons learned can be applied in the future.

4.   Discuss what could have gone better and how.

5.   Relay short summaries of main learning points to clarify


What is a knowledge exchange?


•   Staff leaving should exchange unique knowledge to allow others to capture it.

unique selling point

•   Build the corporate


Activity 4.4.1 –

How to run a knowledge exchange

As the facilitator of the exit

interview, craft knowledge

exchange questions focusing

on the four key areas of work…

•   general

•   key operational information

•   people and people skills

•   lessons learned and

‘pattern recognition’.

•   Then use relationship

mapping to provide an

overview of the

relationships the knowledge

holder has with key

contacts in the


THE KARDS Basic Project Management Course 7th to 11th November 2011

Tel. (+254) (20) 3877553, 0720 812 638 0R 0736 935 387
Email: or
KARDS Development Consultants will commence a training program on Basic Project Management. KARDS is a community development consultancy inaugurated in the year 2002 and is geared towards the socio economic empowerment of the lowly and the humble in Africa. It accomplishes its mission of empowerment through the provision of training, research and consultancy services.

Program Duration: Mon. 7th November – Fri. 11th November 2011(8:30am – 4:00pm)
Venue: Shalom House, Off Ng’ong Rd., On St. Daniel Comboni Rd. Nairobi.
Program Design and Schedule:
The Basic Project Management program lasts for five days and is divided into three sessions per day.
1.    Morning session (8:30am – 10:30am) followed by a thirty minute coffee break
2.    Mid morning session (11:00am – 1:00pm) followed by a 1 hour lunch
3.    Afternoon session (2:00pm – 4:00pm)
Program Objective:

•    To equip participants with skills and techniques to guide them in initiating and managing     sustainable projects.
•    To help the participants understand the dynamics involved in managing projects.
Program Outline:

•    Exploring General Project Dimensions & Features
•    Project Idea Testing & Needs Assessment
•    Project Feasibility Study
•    Project Design & Appraisal
•    Project Launch & Support Mechanism
•    Project Proposal Formulation
•    Project Cycle Management: Participatory Planning
•    Project Monitoring & Evaluation
•    Introduction to Project Budgeting
•    Project Appraisal & Fundamental Decision Making Tools
•    The Role of Information Technology in Project Management
•    Introduction to Effective Project Resource Management

Costing: A fee of KES 9,500 is charged per participant. This fee is inclusive of registration, professional, course materials, morning tea and lunch.

Eligibility: Those new to project management, project managers who wish to develop their professional practice in this discipline and middle level staff seeking to build their project management skills and knowledge.

Economy of Communion XIV: Construction of Economic Democracy

Spirituality of Unity

The case of Loppiano Prima underlines how pillars of communion, instru­ments and aspects are strictly interrelated and how they contribute to develop respect with the construction of economic democracy using the spirituality of Unity inside and outside of an entity. In fact, living aspects of commun­ion without dialogue, trust and reciprocity, can create a simple organizational structure which could overwhelm people. The company proves to be consist­ently socially-oriented in regard to the centrality of human beings and the quality of relationships it develops both internally and externally, along with the environment, as well as the actual re-examination of its operating in light in this direction. To this end, instruments of communion are useful to renew options and make it continuously effective. In fact, it must be kept in mind that communion is not achieved once and for all, but it is necessary to rejuvenate it, improve it and, where necessary rebuild it once more. In this way, the cor­porate mission extends into society, so that entrepreneurs and managers can find a broader sense or logic to their work that is not the exclusive fulfilling of enterprise’s legitimate and dutiful economic purpose.

The firm has both a social mandate and a social vocation

Nowadays it appears that the crucial element on which to focus the atten­tion, that is if the firm wants to achieve a lasting success, is the person and the modality of relationship adopted inside the firm along with the outside. Therefore, it cannot be disregarded that, the adoption of an integrated social orientation can constitute a convenience for the firm, both from an internal and external point of view. From the external perception, it is important to consider not only the product/service the business can offer to the clients and the perspective that the social community has, but also the quality of relation­ships the business is able to build with the stakeholders. On the other hand, with regard to an internal point of view, it is enough to say that, in the present social – economic context, where the resource knowledge is the main aspect upon which to build the competitive advantage, firms need to use all the pos­sible strategies to employ and maintain the best human resources. This way, the firm answers not only to the ever new and pressing social and sustainable demands, but also to that insuppressible social vocation which springs directly from its own nature.

I have learnt the importance of Communion and expounded my understanding of the firm’s purpose

The training was successful and to me it has increased both knowledge and made me learn the importance of communion. And that the feeling of personal comfort is found in social relations, living in common, means that we are one united, the others joy, success, failure is mine and what they go through I go through too.

From this I strongly believe that not so long a lot of companies assumed something quite different about the purpose of business, they said, quite simply that the purpose is to make money but that proved a vacuous  as a saving, that the purpose of life without eating is a requisite not a purpose of life, without eating, life stops, without profit, business stops. Thus profit is a requisite not a purpose of business.


Paul Kisolo: Executive Consultant KARDS

Millicent Agutu: Administrator KARDS

Francis Owino: Administrator REG

Economy of Communion in EA XIII: Judging Experiences thro Spiritual Theory

By emphasizing the difficulties that also business with a clear ethical mission can face, our objective is to transmit the awareness of the problems to operate in the actual social-economic context, characterized by complexity. The use of ethical references can’t be considered as a reduction of complexity, but if it is clearly adopted, correctly integrated in the business management, and coher­ently practiced in the daily activities it can become an instrument of govern­ment of the business and of the complexity itself. In the following sentences we offer some examples.

Dilemma: should we invite the technicians into the cooperative board?

For a business that produces wine, the possibility to plant new vines is im­portant as the choice of producing red or white wine. The interaction among technicians and the administrative manager and the following confrontation between the administrative chief and the responsible person for the technical area is operated according to a principle of collaboration and communion. This preface helps the dialogue among everybody, because it creates a demo­cratic context, in which all the people are open to listen to what the other has to say. In other words, everyone is free to express their own ideas whether from a technical point of view or a professional one. The objective is impor­tant along with the way it is obtained.

PILLAR: Dialogue;

INSTRUMENT: Communion of experience through the proposals of technicians and confrontation;

ASPECT: Light blue; the management and the organizational structure is flexible and not based on a hierarchical structure, but allows for eve­ryone to contribute.

Dilemma: The business acquired a cooperative that had already existed. Take on the ex-farmers or not?

One decides to take on the farmers (ex. Sharecroppers) who had lived there with their families for over 100 years and where there was a sort of a special relationship between both religious and non-religious or atheist people. Which difficulties will be present? Which instruments will be used?

PILLAR: trust, the choice is made on the basis of trust in the ex-farmers, that otherwise could have changed their behaviors towards the coopera­tive and worked less.

INSTRUMENT: communion of experiences.

ASPECT: Indigo, people improve not only professionally, but also per­sonally.

Dilemma: Weed killer or natural disinfestations?

The choice of disinfestations would have saved a lot of money and this would have had an enormous advantage on finances that were already small. But an option of this type would have been against the general objective of respect of human beings and the environment.

PILLAR: Dialogue

INSTRUMENT: the pact on the mission of the business and the anthro­pological vision.

ASPECT: green, one decides for the wealth of the people, whether hu­man and environmental

Dilemma: in a working community we need to consider the needs of the family and all employees?

The Loppiano Prima decides to take into consideration the family of every employee and to distribute a salary that reflects their conditions.

PILLAR: Dialogue; trust; reciprocity – people are not equal, however they are distinctive persons and you can institute a special relationship with them.

INSTRUMENT: The private talk, with the objective to understand the personal situation.

ASPECT: red- also the economic aspect has its importance.


Paul Kisolo: Executive Consultant KARDS

Millicent Agutu: Administrator KARDS

Francis Owino: Administrator REG

Economy of Communion in EA XII: Aspects of Communion

Communion can be carried out daily, both in personal and business life. To represent it through a metaphor, the light can be considered. When a light beam passes into a prism it is refracted in seven colors (red, orange, yellow, green, and blue, indigo, violet). So, to consider the person at the centre of the business has infinity of concrete implications and nuances. Rainbow Score (Golin and Parolin, 2003; 2006) is a management tool based on a balanced scorecard approach. Rainbow Score also goes one step further. It assigns a value to each aspect which is not solely dependent on the effect of financial performance – financial performance being regarded as only a part of overall performance. It highlights and defines all forms of wealth produced, espe­cially those supported by ethical motives or ideals. Through the seven color frame we describe seven business and human aspects and present an explicit value creation structure – both stock and flow – which can inspire effective strategies, managerial methodologies, accounting and reporting methods.

  1. Economic dimension – Red. The economic and financial dimension is the first business aspect we consider: this indicates a company’s health and is the combined product of the commitment, professional competence and skills of the entrepreneur and employees. We can include a financial analysis but we must also look at other processes and information involved in value creation. Planning and account­ing for healthy company growth requires us to consider different aspects beyond just profits and profitability, e.g. new job opportuni­ties – considering quality and amount, salaries and benefits – and solidarity inside and outside the company.
  2. Relational Capital: Orange. The second aspect is relational capi­tal seen as the combination of all real and potential external rela­tionships of the company. Here we highlight a basic dimension for the company – the customer and supplier network. Total Quality Management and Stakeholder Theory (Rusconi, W. P. 2008) have already focused their attention, embedded in management practices, on various customer interests, indicating different ways of identify­ing and answering specific needs. Relational capital can be consid­ered in three ways: as direct relational capital, basically needed in trade exchanges, for instance when participating in fairs; as indirect relational capital, i.e. all the sets of relations which help develop the company reputation, e.g. public solidarity actions; and as relational goods, referring to the contents of human relationships, independent from any immediate financial benefit, i.e. as in friendship between colleagues.
  3. Corporate culture Yellow: Describing corporate culture is the first step towards rediscovering the original reasons behind the forma­tion of the company, and involving people working at the company in this process arouses enthusiasm and the search for practical ways to align stated values with company life. Managers know that val­ue alignment and trust increase both efficiency and effectiveness, whilst controls and sanctions can fail and be costly. This is why it is worth evaluating ethical effectiveness by analyzing whether mana­gerial behavior, strategic choices, internal and external relations are consistent with the business mission ethical commitments.
  4. Social and environmental quality Green: It examines what contrib­utes to well-being in the company and in some ways represents both welfare and a well-being health index. A challenge facing manage­ment lies in creating more responsible and less stressful workplaces. Empowerment and engagement can help generate organizational trust which results in real well-being in the company. Moreover so­cial quality is strictly connected to environmental quality: both need to be planned and accounted for to maintain deliberateness and con­tinuity. In this way company initiatives can be models for the civil society.
  5. Human capital and working community – Blue. The fifth dimension considers human capital and the working community in all organi­zational forms and expressions, the ultimate aim being to harmonize them. The organizational setting through which the company out­lines its manufacturing and working teams is not complete by itself but is already a clear expression of the value given to the people working within it. In this way the organization has a strong influence on the company’s development, not only regarding process efficien­cy but also process contents. Moreover, the organizational style can­not be separated from the relational style and the corporate cultural identity, but expresses them in daily management: the organizational role might assume the functional role by allocating everyone to the right place so that they are at ease and can give the best of their pro­fessional and human competences and skills.
  6. Intellectual capital: education, training and innovation – Indigo: Intellectual capital is linked to talent exploitation and in the organiza­tion evolves from the supply and demand of various stimulations oriented towards the development of the company which come from both external and internal sources. Frequently, the scenarios that managers deal with are those of innovation and know-how growth. It is a context exposed to risks of individualism and intellectual capital concentration on one or few people which can increase competitive­ness and be of detriment to the work climate.
  7. g. Communication – Violet: The last dimension is a cross key to many of the topics discussed above: corporate internal and external com­munication. The meaning of communication may sometimes appear to overlap with that of information so that one might be distinguished from the other.
Good Communication results in New Behavior

Nevertheless, etymologically, communica­tion is more than just an exchange of information; when applied in its broadest sense it assists the information to become operational, eventually resulting in new behavior. Moreover, effectiveness in communication is due to the obvious possibility of speaking the same language and being in harmony with the addressee’s aims and values. This demands a similar, shared experience to create the “we” feeling. This might require adapting the language to that of the stakeholders involved. A result is seen in active feedback and general participation.

Rainbow score considers the production and relational aspects of the firm

Real and effective strategy becomes operational whenever it can be both a guide and a process of analysis. From this perspective the seven colors report­ing system, which is a natural implementation of Rainbow Score, helps ex­plain the reasons for the company’s success and suggests actions to improve it. Meanwhile the inner connection among various aspects makes manufacturing processes and relational dynamics comprehensible (Golin and parolin, 2003 and 2006). Giving each aspect a value in itself permits us to consider every single aspect as a stepping stone to others. In the same way that the seven colors of the rainbow come from the same light, inside the company all choic­es, events and problems are integrated and inter-dependent with each other.


Paul Kisolo: Executive Consultant KARDS

Millicent Agutu: Administrator KARDS

Francis Owino: Administrator REG

Economy of Communion in EA XII: Communion Instruments

Communion in Corporations, as well as social orientation generally consid­ered needs to be continuously fostered. It is unrealistic to think that it is pos­sible to achieve it once and for all. Adopting instruments or tools which can help people to improve is very relevant, and in some cases can reconstruct it. The Instruments of Communion are: The Pact on Corporate Mission; The Communion of Soul; The Communion of Experience; The Moment of Truth; The Private Talk.

(i) Pact on Corporate Mission. Signing a Pact, in which the Cor­porate Mission is clearly defined, means identifying the purpose of the business and how it is going operating into the market place and in relation to the Stakeholders (internal and external alike). Defining and signing a Pact on Anthropological Vision is also very important. This allows the consideration of relationships not only from a tech­nical point of view, but also from a human perspective. Therefore a «productiveness» (Blum, 1956) concept is underlined, which in­cludes productivity, and the climate from how such a production is carried out, along with the quality of the relationship.

(ii) Communion of soul sharing: with someone at the beginning of the day can be very rewarding. In fact ones joy can be shared with others, and problems can be shared and solved. Of course, it must be done with tact and discretion in order to avoid hearsay spreading or trust being betrayed. As Barnard emphasized, every individual asks for consideration as a person, which means his personal life can­not be left outside the door of the business (Barnard, 1938). This is simply unattainable, and a effective manager should be aware of this and take it into account.

(iii) Communion of Experiences: The Communion of Experiences is also a cornerstone of these instruments of Communion. It means that it is possible to share our knowledge and our experiences with others. This form of narrative could be considered an integral part in shaping personality, and in general terms, making sense (Weick, 1995). Sharing experiences can be considered, in a metaphorical way, like the action carried out by a forerunner. He can be a role model to others, and they can feel encouraged to surpass difficulties or they can simply find relief in the fact that others have had similar encounters, enabling them to find a way forward.

(iv) Moment of Truth: An important instrument to strengthen com­munion inside the firm could be the so called “Moment of Truth”. Thanks to The Moment of Truth it is possible to articulate both nega­tive and positive attitudes in people’s behavior, in order to help over­come negative viewpoints and to be strengthened and encouraged in acting on the positive ones.

(v) Private Talk: Through private Talk, it is possible to share, among people with more experience and/or responsibility in work or in spiritual life, our mind, concerns and conditions at a certain mo­ment in time. In the case of the person who receives or gives help, it is very important to do so practicing dialogue, trust and reciprocity, with open mind and soul, in order to allow the other to express one­self in his mind, and offering what can be useful and activated.


Paul Kisolo: Executive Consultant KARDS

Millicent Agutu: Administrator KARDS

Francis Owino: Administrator REG

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