KPN holds the training on Results Oriented Report Writing and Monitoring and Evaluation

Post by Bridged Faida, KARDS

Michael Ochieng the Director of Africa Peace Point (APP) training KPN members on M&E Framework

Michael Ochieng the Director of Africa Peace Point (APP) training KPN members on M&E Framework

For pictures of this event kindly visit here
The Kenya Peace Network (KPN) training on Results Oriented Report Writing and Monitoring and Evaluation was held on the 6th to 9th May 2014 at Kolping Center, Kilimambogo. It was organized by the Capacity building Cluster comprising of ISMM and KARDS being assisted by the KPN executive committee. The KPN capacity building activities are supported by Mensen met een Missie, a Dutch based mission support organization.

In attendance were representatives from DECESE, SOLWODI, IRCK, HAART, KARDS, APP, RAPADO, St. Martin CSA, CYU, KECOSCE, CNDI and Trace Kenya. Fr. Joseph Caramaza of ISMM facilitated the results oriented and report writing training while Michael Ochieng of APP facilitated the monitoring and evaluation framework training. Out of one reason or another a few organizations were not able to attend. Members of the Executive Committee who graced the training included Eric Odongo the executive secretary, Michael Ochieng and Vincent Okonya. The former Chair person of KPN the Rev Sasaka also graced the training. In welcoming the participants the executive committee members expressed their satisfaction that there was an improvement in gender representation and also referred participants to the capacity assessment document of 2013. Vincent Okonya emphasized that good reports are a great help in the KPN fundraising endeavors.

Fr. Caramaza led participants explore the essence of focused writing in tracking project impacts at different stages of project life cycle and in line with planned results. Topics tackled included media theory, interpersonal communication, barriers to communication and communication for advocacy. Participants discussed media work, media language, verbal and non-verbal communication, ways in which communication is achieved, frameworks through which messages are understood, laws that regulate these frameworks, the preparation of a newsletter and the choice newsletter contents. The inclusion of drama, images and videos in stories also formed an interesting part of the discussion. Lastly the facilitator led a discussion on the preparation for an interview and use of PowerPoint in presentations. The participant also wrote individual stories, sample newsletters and did a research on topics of choice in group setting. The reports were assessed jointly and areas of improvement made.

Michael facilitated the sessions on monitoring and evaluation (M&E). M&E was defined, its use, main objectives, what it involves, its purpose, participatory monitoring and evaluation, difference between monitoring and evaluation, why to monitor and evaluate and what to monitor and evaluate. In addition the logical framework was discussed and the participants were assisted to develop it and understand its logic. Other topics explored included results based monitoring and evaluation, results based reporting, risks, assumptions and the differences between programs and projects. Lastly, the participants were helped understand what decision making is, why data is important, data versus information, users and providers of data, principles of data quality, why users and producers must work together, data sources steps to using routine information in project/program and when would managers raise questions taken through data use in decision making.

After the training participants expressed the fact that they had learnt new skills and new insights that would be of great benefit to their organizations. Some of the skills they learnt included report and story writing, understanding the logical framework, monitoring and evaluation, newsletter preparation and proposal writing. Most were appreciative of shared experiences from other organizations. They also expressed the fact that what they had learnt would certainly be practiced and shared with other staff and help in bettering their organizational practice.

The participants also made suggestions on future areas for capacity building. These included Team building, further training on logical framework, fundraising/proposal writing, data presentation and visualization, knowledge management for organizations, proposal writing with respect to different agencies, documentation, data analysis, budgeting, and theory of change. Participants expressed the fact that they would need a certificate of attendance. This as an issue was be taken over by the Capacity Building Cluster and the KPN Executive Committee.
During the training the capacity building cluster took time to introduce the questionnaire on past capacity building activities. It was generally agreed that this questionnaire would be sent to directors who would fill them up. The participants were also updated that the training on organizational development would take place on the 8th to 11th July 2014.


Acting Against Gender Violence: Kenyatta University GBV Conference 2012 Lessons

Milicent Agutu

The First International Gender Based Violence Conference took place at the Kenyatta University on the 1st to 3rd August 2012. The theme of the conference was “Creating safe spaces: A multi disciplinary approach to gender based violence. The conference was enriched by a confluence of policy makers, practitioners and academics who provided different perspectives on GBV.

Gender Based Violence as defined by UNESCO (1999) entails “acts likely to result into physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including such acts as coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life (UNESCO 1999 p.53)”. Violence significantly hinders the ability of individuals to fully participate in, and contribute to their communities – economically, politically, and socially. It is a human rights violation or abuse; public health challenge; and a barrier to civil, social and economic participation. GBV is also associated to limited access to education, adverse health outcomes, lost households productivity, reduced income and increased costs.

The main organizers of the conference were  AMWIK, Wangu Kanja Foundation, COVAW, CREAW, Menken, The Coexist Initiative, supported by United Nations Trust Fund to End Violence Against Women, USAID, APHIA Kamili, APHIA PLUS, APHIA PLUS –Bonde, TROCAIRE Working for a Just World, Population Council, SWEDEN, Norad, Elion John AIDS Foundation, LVCT among the others. Kenyatta University the main organizer hosted the conference.

GBV was explored in the context of family, community and state. At the level of the family an examination was made on how the traditional gender roles, societal constructs and culture do promote GBV. At the state level it was felt that combating GBV both nationally and internationally needs to go in tandem with the need to alter the existing paradigms. The conference called for a recognition that GBV undermines not only the safety, and human rights of the millions of individuals who experience it, but also the public health, economic stability, the security of nations.



1. From the conference presentations it was clear that  GBV is enhanced by traditional structures that reinforce and sanction gender inequality. These structures may be socio-cultural, political, economic and legal and they vary from family to family, community to community and state to state. In many cases GBV was trivialized by the traditional society and people who are culprits of GBV never felt that it was an offense. It was hence considered normal and macho to mete violence against women by “beating the hell out of them.” In some cases women got used to being violated and thought that it was something normal. Hence the woman lived in terror and always expecting/ waiting to be punished for any trivial issue or at the man’s pleasure.

2. A common cultural practice that violates the dignity of the woman is the female genital mutilation (FGM) practiced by several societies. The effects are severe as FGM and are associated with both psychological and health problems. Women risk infections; including problems in their urinary system, obstetric and gynecological complications, abdominal pain and may also emit discharges. The circumcision destroys sexual function and precludes enjoyment of sexual relations. The worst consequence includes the fact that those undergoing FGM risk infertility, complications during child births or to the extreme deaths during delivery.

3. GBV happens within families and takes place either under the full view of the public or in closed doors. The main victims are mostly women and children. There is acceptance of GBV in the families/community and lack of acceptance of sensitive issues; e.g.  talking about  sex is regarded as a taboo. On the other hand common language has been used to promote gender violence. Most words that demean women are considered as normal in the family and society. Hence suffering within a family may go on for a lifetime and may never be reported. Observers too may never intervene to help stopping it. The failure to report spousal violence is attributed to the  lack of community support and absence of approppriate community structures to combat it. On the other hand, the fact that the public (neighbours or friends) does not intervene, shows the extent in which GBV is generally an accepted and condoned societal norm.

4. On the other hand there are no specific anti-GBV laws under which perpetrators can be charged. Crimes of this nature therefore are tried under various laws, such as the penal code, sexual offenses act, counter trafficking act etc. This has the danger that in the long run the victims may not get justice in cases of severe bodily harm and the culprits walk free to continue abusing others women. There is also a feeling that there is little political will to tackle gender based violence by enacting the pending bills.

5. Efforts to address the problem of GBV is also hampered by lack of credible data. Or where this data exists it has never been used by researchers. This means therefore that there is a great divide between the academia, practitioners and policy makers. This divide is bound to make the different approaches to addressing the problem weaker.  However when researchers will find data depositories from the practitioners, then they will be able to show the magnitude of the problem. Understanding the scale, zenith and  scope of the problem will help both the state and the practitioners develop effective strategies to address GBV.

There is also a misconception of the role played by GBV researchers. They tend to merge gender work with feminine activism. Lack of awareness and sensitization among the people and misinformation on Gender; gender being regarded as wholly a women’s issue thus disassociation by men counterparts. Also there is a tendency that students working on gender  are not encouraged to pursue internship with organizations tackling the problem of  GBV. Universities on the other hand have missed in their role which is to teach, research and community outreach. University research should aim to impact communities and help initiate change where it is needed.

6. The conference also looked into human rights concerns and how women (and men) access and obtain justice. It was acknowledged that there are tremendous improvements in the way women victims of GBV are safeguarded.  However the challenge of reporting cases and successful prosecution remains a major impediment despite the presence of laws addressing Violence Against Women.

7. The government on the other hand has not treated the enactment of the pending gender related bills with urgency.  Article 45(5) of the Constitution of Kenya 2010 mandated parliament to enact legislation for the protection of the family unit. One of the initiatives that have been undertaken is to consolidate all the laws governing marriage. Currently, the Protection against Domestic Violence Bill 2012, The Marriage Bill 2012, The Matrimonial Property Bill 2012 have been drafted and forwarded to the Commission on the Implementation of Constitution (CIC). Domestic Violence Bill 2012 besides providing the legal framework with a law specifically addressing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), also empowers the courts to provide protection and orders in favor of victims of domestic violence. Areas for advocacy explored at the meeting were:- The P3 forms and the gazettement of the post rape care (PRC), Funding for GBV, Policy reforms to include a special police unit on gender, Funding and services towards psychosocial support and related post IPV attention

8. The Kenyan Constitution has made Gender and women a core focus of our Nation. The Bills of  Rights provides for equality and freedom from discrimination; thus women and men have right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres. Leadership and Integrity Bill – election of women to elective positions; 1/3 of women representatives in the parliament and all elective posts, The Legislature – Promotion of Marginalized Groups; women being part. Devolved Government – county executive committees; Stipulates that the numbers appointed under clause (2) (b) shall not exceed one-third of the county assembly, if the assembly has less than thirty members; or ten, if the assembly has thirty or more members. Land and Environment – Legislation on land; (iii)  that regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage and (iv) protect the dependents of deceased person holding interests in any land, including the interest of spouses in actual occupation of land.

Combating GBV

1. There is a need to network with actors against GBV from all sectors of the society; practitioners, academia, policy makers and donors.

2. There is need to empower the women and the girls economically. The government could consider making a provision against GBV within the  National Budget. Women’s empowerment is critical to build a stable Nation and democratic societies.

3. Gender work should be guided by good research that borrows from multi-disciplinary perspectives? Researchers should also consider pursuing a multi-sectoral, dimensional and issues approaches; prevention of GBV, sexual issues, language, culture etc .

4. Create a gender based violence data base of researchers (men and women), , research on how constitution will help solve the  GBV challenge, research on how language escalates GBV, engagement of public/community in their issues, research on how technology can enhance or speed GBV (technology to collect and disseminate data).

5. Actors should be assisted to become socially innovative. This can be done through the formation of communities of practice that will enhance the emergence of best practice in combating the problem of GBV. Education should be a priority and it should reach all the structures of the society. Documentations will need to be made on the important dimensions of service such as advocacy, psycho-social assistance, economic assistance, legal assistance, safe havens etc. On the other hand it is important for organizations to share how they assist women and children victims from abusive family relationships by holistic services provision.

Call for Action


1. Ending gender-based violence will mean changing social cultural concepts about masculinity, and that process must actively engage men, whether they be policy makers, parents, spouses or young boys. Faith communities, corporations, institutions have a role to play in this process. The whole country should be educated to act against gender based violence.

2. The Government need to enact urgently the Marriage Bill 2012 and the Matrimonial Property Bill 2012, this will also help in defining gender based violence.

3. There should be interrogation of culture, traditions, attitudes and beliefs and lastly what kind of programs to put for different category of people.


4. There is need for regional mechanisms (for advocacy & lobby) that would see the government set space, policy and to do the implementation of programs to support women and girl child.

5. There is need for every one to watch their language as language can prevent or enhance GBV. Taking responsibility on language use, is therefore quite important.  Media  should also be careful to portray women as  language as sex symbols as they risk becoming platforms for GBV.

6. There is need to come up with simple programs of creating awareness and sensitization, social-economic and political empowerment of women and reinstatement/establishment of one stop centre.


Human trafficking and electioneering in Kenya addressed at the Mombasa Symposium

Report by Sammy Mwangi

Several Civil Society Organizations were represented at the  Third Mombasa Counter Human Trafficking Symposium

“To address the continuing problem of human trafficking in Kenya, authorities recently announced the banning of domestic workers moving to Saudi Arabia.” (Saturday Nation, June 23rd 2012). On 13th July 2012 NTV carried a story indicating that 80 Kenyans are stuck in the Middle East and living under deplorable conditions. A particular case on this day was that of a 21 years old  girl who was seemingly drowned in a swimming pool. Follow the story here 

The Third Mombasa Counter Human Trafficking symposium took place on 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Westeley Methodist Hall, in Tononoka. It was organized by Consolation East Africa (CEA) a Nairobi based NGO that works to build the capacity of the grassroots and faith based organizations to address the challenge of human trafficking through the support of Koinonia Advisory Research Service (KARDS), a community based consultancy, Trace-Kenya a Mombasa based organization working to prevent and protect children and young persons from trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation. Other partners for the symposium were Solidarity With Women in Distress (SOLWODI) an organization that provides support to women and children driven into the commercial sex industry in Mombasa; Arise and Shine youth group (A&SYG), an organization working to build linkages between the isolated anti trafficking groups across the coastal region; the Cradle Foundation of Kenya, non-governmental organization committed to the protection, promotion and enhancement of the rights of the child through court representation, advocacy and law reform, and the Kenya Blue Heart Grassroots Initiative (KBHGI) which is a network of performing and visual art groups whose mission is to educate the society on human rights and civic responsibilities through art and performance.

The symposium focused on ‘engendering the Kenyan electioneering process through grassroots mainstreaming’. Organizations present explored various challenges brought about by election violence both at national and grassroots levels. Strategies aimed at minimizing electoral violence have to be seen to involve all the societal micro-cosms.  A crucial level to start propagating the messages of peace is the family. Messages on meaningful civic participation should be designed to target families during the community mobilizations and trainings. Grassroots organizations have a responsibility to reach out to families within their vicinity as important agents in promoting a harmonious electioneering process. Families to have power over the youth and can ensure that they are not used for purposes of meting violence. Electioneering violence has a negative effect on families as they risk loosing their members, loosing properties and hence be condemned to poverty and ultimate exploitation, and also separations when families are on the run looking for solace.

The symposium attracted thirty four participants whom most of them were actors in the field of countering human trafficking. Organizations represented were RECI, Phoenix, Kuimiriria Child Rights, COPDEC-Taveta, CWSK-Mombasa, MTG, Mahali Pa Usalama, Kenya Methodist University and Arise And Shine. Other attendees were from Tanzania’s University of Dar es Salaam who came to also share and learn from the symposium.  Facilitators included Millicent Agutu a development consultant with KARDS, Nairobi; Ruth Lewa the Director of Solwodi, Mombasa; Constantine Deus and MA in the University of Dar es Salaam and an organizational consultant working with Youth Initiative Tanzania (YITA) in Dar es Salaam; Paul Adhoch the executive director of Trace-Kenya, Mombasa; Amos Nalianya the secretary of Arise and Shine Youth Group, Kwale and Sammy Mwangi of Consolation East Africa.

Millicent Agutu, facilitated the first session on engendering the Kenyan electioneering process 2012/2013. She said that violence during and after election pushes many people to poverty and as a result many become vulnerable to exploitation. She added that the greatest sufferers of electioneering process were women and children.To solve this problem there is a great need to engender the electioneering process and introduce the concept of gender responsive campaigning and ultimately leadership. Millicent added, that there is a great need to empower women on their rights so as they may defend themselves and speak loudly against any acts of violence meted against them during the electioneering time. In reality, politicians hire young people to unleash violence to the supporters of their opponents. This has been a common practice and seems to have been accepted across the board. Civil societies have to ensure that the youth are educated against accepting to be used to propagate negative outcomes on their fellow citizens. On the other hand mechanisms have to be sought to ensure good behavior during the electioneering process and that mechanisms instituted to ensure that all politicians campaign in a civil manner and desist from acts of violence against their opponents’ supporters.

Amos Nalianya facilitated on the reintegration challenges faced by the trafficked victims. He looked at various dimensions of these challenges such as economic, psychosocial, spiritual and legal. Through shared experiences it was revealed that sometimes the families of the victims of human trafficking tend to accept the situation they were in. This happens mostly incase the family is benefitting from the current situation of the victim financially and materially. Reintegration is also made hard on one hand by the surviving victim who finds it hard to explain the ordeal she has passed through. On the other hand, reintegration becomes difficult because of the community and family stigma; where the surviving victim may be seen as a loser. Hence organizations working to help in reintegrating the surviving victims of human trafficking are usually placed in complex dynamics. At times they may not have adequate resources to ensure that the pains of the surviving victim are addressed adequately. Legal perspectives proves a big challenge to the people who are willing to assist the victims( especially children) since one is required to get a letter from District Officer before reporting to the police station. Incase that is lacking one is taken as a suspect; this poses a threat to those who would like to assist and rescue children who are trafficked. In addition involving legal procedures were said to be the stumbling block for many people in coming out to report besides being harassed by the authority. Churches and Mosques were seen to the first places the victims of human trafficking seek for refuge and therefore despite being given spiritual accompaniment the institutions should come up with more ways of assisting the victims.

Ruth Lewa facilitated the third session on trauma counseling for the trafficking survivors.She indicated that the greatest challenge is that many a times the victims of human trafficking do not realize that they are being exploited. Sheadded that, all trafficked people be they working as domestic workers or asprostitutes, believe they are working off to pay a debt. In some instances the survivors facing the prospects of freedom from exploitation may desire to negotiate with their former captors, for fear of the fact there may not be better opportunities where they have come from. By choosing this they accept to continue being degraded, exploited and always to be in the situation they have always been. Situations like these may occur in cases where the former victims believe that the family and community are not able to providing a good integration environment which enables the individual survivor deal with experiences such as loss, grief, trauma, self-conflict and anxiety.Full reintegration back to the family and society requires a heavy investment of time, energy and resources. Hence rescuing a victim is simply not enough but understands her needs after the rescue process is quite important. It is therefore important that counseling is also to be extended to the family to be able to understand the survivor well. Counseling should also take cognizance of the main factors that may have pushed the survivor to a human trafficking situation such as better life syndrome, lack of employment, ignorance, lack of information and culture. It must also be notedthat not many people are willing to talk about the ‘promised opportunities’ for fear of being ‘discouraged’ by their relatives and friends resulting them to being trafficked.

Citing the enactment of the KenyaAnti Trafficking in Persons Law-2010, Paul Adhoch, indicated that the implementation has not been very successful. This can be clearly seen by the fact that the USA report of 2012 degraded Kenya from Tier 2 to Tier 2 Watch List – due to a lack of evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking.The International Organization for Migration (IOM) in 2011 estimates up to 20,000 Somali and Ethiopian immigrants are smuggled into the country  evading the Kenyan security machinery heading to South Africa every year. A 2011 report by International Peace Institute holds that the girls mainly from Somalia are trafficked from North Eastern Kenya to Nairobi or Mombasa for prostitution and forced labor. According to the two organizations, vehicles that transport miraa (khat) from Kenya to Somalia return with young girls and women who end up in brothels and some are shipped to other parts of the world. Locally there are many cases of young girls and children being taken from their rural homes in the promise of being taken to school and then ending up in slavery. The situation is not made any better due to the fact that there are a number of orphan children is also quite high and these children have no advocates to follow up their treatment. Also there have been serious problems mainly facing the Kenyan domestic workers abroad which have included sexual violence, severe brutalities and in some cases deaths. This violent trend against Kenyan and workers from other parts of Africa in the Middle East has been on the rising scale with the civil society in Kenya asking questions such as; how could this happen? Are there no human rights organizations in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and other Middle East Countries concerned with the treatment of migrant workers in their countries? What about the laws in those countries-are they so insensitive to the plight of migrant workers?  Are there no foreign embassies that can raise a voice for the poor migrant workers from Kenya and other poor countries of the world in these host countries? Locally in Kenya organizations need to raise awareness so as many people may get correct information and not fall prey to human trafficking. In May 2012, the government of Kenya coincidentally banned the movement of domestic workers to Saudi Arabia as a way of addressing these brutalities.

The symposium called for network reinforcement amongst the actors working to combat human trafficking. Constantine Deus encouraged Counter Human tracking organizations to go for strategic social networking and not aimless social networking. Strategic social networking focuses on mutual interests on one hand and on the other finding collective ways in which organizations assist each other work towards achieving their individual organizational objectives. Constatine Deus from the University of Dar es Salaam emphasized that counter trafficking  actors in Kenya ought also to mainstream a civic awareness agenda during 2012/2013 electioneering period based on promotion of peaceful elections. Civic participation amongst the counter human trafficking actors will disseminate the message of peace far and wide and ensure that the negative results arising from electioneering violence are reduced and that people of all genders are happy and at peace through-out the electioneering process. Electioneering violence will not only create internally displaced persons, refugees, many deaths and property destruction but it will also generate vulnerability to exploitation and human trafficking in Kenya. According to Constantine, grassroots organizations ought to transcend their normal mission in providing rehabilitation and reintegration to promoting a peaceful 2012/2013. This task cannot be achieved only by one organization but by a unity of all actors. In promoting this networking actors need to ask themselves questions, such as who to form network with? Why networking with some organizations and not others? What goals are going to be realized through such networks?  How does the social networking take place among the actors in the field? Does it need a task force or a clear strategy?” These questions enable the building of social networks that are stronger and helpful among organization to succeed in strengthening efforts for reintegration and peaceful elections in Kenya.

According to Sammy Mwangi the Coordinator of CEA, facilitating on knowledge management, media is the best mode of transferring knowledge, information and experiences from the actors, survivors of trafficking to reach people of different languages. An effective media can raise the awareness level and can also bring reduced vulnerability to human trafficking and other crimes. Media enables marginalized communities to speak about issues that concern them at the local level, creating linkages between development, democracy and media. This was realized as a snap-shot of community needs and aspirations and allows a community to map its future using the bottom-up approach. An ideal philosophy of media is to use this medium as the voice of the voiceless, and the mouthpiece of oppressed people, or by communities that have not been served by conventional communication structures. More so, media offers space for creativity and is also a tool for empowerment. Besides this, media is able to integrate different mediums of communication e.g. drama, song and dance, storytelling, puppetry, radio listenership groups and community radio stations.

The symposium proposed to form a cluster system which will enhance the exchange of knowhow and experiences and also promote collaboration and peer reviews for better results. The symposium brought together actors and survivors of human trafficking. The survivors shared of their experiences as victims in foreign countries and also domestically. The real life experiences cases shared created an impact to the participants who had little or no knowledge about human trafficking. Fear of coming out as survivor was demystified as many cases came up from the participants relating their situations they went through or observed from other. The symposium called on other people who may have been rescued from the slavery/trafficking to be able to come out and condemn the inhuman acts of violation of their rights. For the proper healing of the survivors, the families, communities were also urged to accept, love and encourage them to take life positively despite what they went through. In most cases it proves to be hard to change one’s view when he/she is a victim and did it in his/her own desires and it takes lots of persuasion and patience to make one accept to change.

After the symposium, the Kenya Blue Hearts Grassroots Initiative (KBHGI) through the assistance of SOLWODI performed in various schools and institutions  in Malindi, Kilifi and Mombasa for a period of one week. Their message apart from educating the communities about human trafficking was also helping to demonstrate the value of peace during the electioneering process to the residents of the coast of Kenya. The impact of their work was so strong and was appreciated in every place they went with local residents indicating the fact that civic participation is quite important and the fact that a peaceful Mombasa is good especially for women who suffer much during moments of terror and violence.

Lastly the government was put into task by coming up with policies to guide the operations of the employment agencies as many agencies were said to be uncaring which has led to many people suffer in the hands of their employers. It was noted that it was right for the agents to find employment for the people anywhere as far as they were not exploited, abused or dehumanized in any way. A call was made for the Kenyan embassies abroad to always be approachable and be of assistance to the Kenyans who are in need and be alerted incase one get into those countries.

Invitation to the third Mombasa Counter Human Trafficking Symposium

You are invited  to participate in the upcoming Third Mombasa Counter Human Trafficking Symposium for the Faith Based and Grassroots organizations that will be held in Mombasa, Kenya, on the 21st to 23rd of June, 2012.

Engender the 2012 political process. We should choose the right leaders and not be clouded by the tradition which compelled us to choose only male candidates even when they were not meeting the qualities of leadership and betrayed the electorate.

The Conference has traditionally been organized by CEA (Consolation East Africa) a Nairobi based NGO that works to build the capacity of the grassroots and the faith based organizations to address the challenge of human trafficking through the support of Koinonia Advisory Research and Development Service (KARDS) a Nairobi based community development consultancy in collaboration  with Trace-Kenya a Mombasa based organization working to prevent, and protect children and young persons from trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation. This year we are honoured to introduce new partners of the symposium. The first being Solidarity With Women in Distress (SOLWODI), an organization that provides support to women and children driven into the commercial sex industry in Mombasa; Arise and Shine youth group (A&SYG), an organization working to build linkages between the isolated anti trafficking groups across the coastal region;  The Cradle Foundation of  Kenya, a  non-governmental organization committed to the protection, promotion and enhancement of the rights of the child through court representation, advocacy and law reform; and the Kenya Blue Hearts Grassroots Initiative, a network of performing and visual art groups whose mission is to educate the society on human rights and civic responsibilities through art and performances.

The symposium takes cognizance of the fact that this is the year of elections in Kenya. Its main theme is “engendering the electioneering process 2012/2013 in Kenya.” It’s a fact that when the electoral process has problems, violence erupts which leads to gross human rights violations. People lose lives, property, they also become victims of sexual crimes, exploitation and possible human trafficking. It is for this purpose that the symposium will be divided into two. One part will dwell on discussing about the leadership that is responsive to the engendering process that is focused on gender empowerment in Kenya and on the need for peaceful elections.

According to WHO report of 1999, violence against women is an area that is increasingly being recognised as affecting women’s health and autonomy. Violence against women has serious consequences for their mental and physical well-being, including their reproductive and sexual health. If violence against women is tolerated and accepted in a society, its eradication is made more difficult. In extension this violence has direct effect on the children as  in most cases it is extended to them. Tolerating this violence would mean that the society cannot be moved even when the women (and in extension the children) are facing extreme injustices. To solve this peoblem there is a great need to engender the electioneering process and introduce the concept of gender responsive campaigning and ultimately leadership. On the other hand, there is a great need to empower women on their rights so as they may defend them and speak loudly against any acts of violence metted against them during the electioneering time. Women must be encouraged to join politics as direct participartion in policy formulation helps in changing the societal constructs and will help in correcting the past social economic attitudes and injustices metted against them. 

Secondly, the symposium will focus on the conducive tools and environment for an effective reintegration process for trafficked victims. Literature and practices on “reintegration process will be discussed in order to bridge the gap between the literature and the practice.

For more information on the conference and the program please visit the Consolation East Africa Blog here. More info on the symposium here and find the poster here.

Should you wish to receive any further information about the content or as regards logistical arrangements, please do not hesitate to contact us at

Telephone +254734988713 or 0720812638 or 0720444545 or 0722499302.

Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace Organizes a Counter Human Trafficking Conference

ROME, May 08, 2012 (CISA )

Read human trafficking stories here, here  and here

Delegates from Africa joined participants from the rest of the world in a conference on combating human trafficking hosted by the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (PCJP) today May 8, 2012.  The conference held in Rome will focus on prevention, pastoral support and rehabilitation and a survivor of trafficking will also share her harrowing story. It draws in a variety of speakers from the church, government, NGO’s and the civil society groups.
The Bishop for Migrants in England and Wales and key organizer of the conference, Bishop Patrick Lynch said, “My hope is that it will create within the Church a greater awareness of the extent and tragedy of human trafficking. Bishop Lynch also hopes that the conference will strengthen the resolve of Church groups, governments and civic groups to work together to prevent trafficking and support those people and projects who do heroic work in helping the victims of trafficking.

According to CCN, the conference is being co-organised by the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and the Office for Migration Policy (OMP) of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales, building on a successful partnership with the Metropolitan Police Service.

Programme: Mombasa 2012 Counter Human Trafficking Symposium

The Third Mombasa Symposium for the Faith Based and Grassroots Organizations in East Africa

2012 Theme: Engendering the 2012 Kenya Electioneering Process and Victim Reintegration (click to go to the concept)

Organizers: CEA and Trace Kenya

Day 1: June 21st 2012

08.00-8.30  am: Arrival/Registration

08.30- 9.00 am: Introduction & Welcome remarks

9.00 to 10.00 Addressing Gender issues in the wake of the electioneering 2012 process in Kenya

Gender mainstreaming

Engendering the election process

Addressing political violence borne out of the electioneering process

 10.15-10. 45 am: The electoral process and human rights

11. 15- 12.15 pm: Introducing the Reintegration Challenge

Economic aspect of reintegration

psychosocial aspect of reintegration

Spiritual aspect of reintegration

Legal aspect of reintegration

12.20 to 1.00 Presentations and feedback

Psychological services in support to enhancing reintegration

3.00 to 4.00 pm

Psychological and trauma debriefing

Model interview for the victim of human trafficking

Addressing the needs of the victim of human trafficking immediate and long term

Day 2: 22nd June 2012

Community Intervention Reinforcing Reintegration

8.30 to 9.00 am:

Family role in the reintegration process of victims of human trafficking

How Community support can mitigate on the  reintegration process

Social stigma as a challenge to the  reintegration process

The role of social support structures in the reintegration process: Mosques, Churches, schools, hospitals etc

Practical Issues

10.45- 11.15 am

Referral      systems and information sharing to enhance reintegration of human      trafficking victim

Social service, FBOs ,CSOs and government roles in the reintegration process of the victim of human trafficking

The role of the media in enhancing the reintegration process for the victims of human trafficking

Monitoring and Evaluation

11. 15- 1.00 pm

Reintegration interventions impact assessment using case analysis

Knowledge management for the improvement of reintegration process

Networking and Collaboration for a peaceful electioneering process and for enhancing victim integration 

2.00-4.00 pm

Social networking to enhance successful reintegration on one hand and as a strategy to contribute to a peaceful electioneering process in Kenya (Constantine Deus, Organizational Devt. Consultant, Dar es Salaam)

Forum Conclusion: The Organizers.


Social Networking amongst Counter Human Trafficking Organisations in East Africa

Presented at the Second Counter Human Trafficking Symposium for the Faith Based and Grassroots Organizations in Dar es Salaam 28th to 29th March 2012


Constantine Deus

Deus is an organizational development consultant

Social Network: Definition and History

The concept of social networking has been approached differently and different scholars leading to multiple definitions and there can hardly be one global agreeable definition. The definitions to be used in this paper do not in any way try to be absolutely complete however attempt to give a clear understanding of the phenomenon.

A diagram showing the extent of networking to counter human trafficking amongst the organizations in Kenya according to a study by KARDS in 2009 (p59). The centrality position is maintained by a number of the civil society organizations. 

A social network could be defined as a social structure made up of a set of actors which could be individuals or organizations with the dyadic ties between these actors such as relationships, connections, or interactions. It is an approach which can give a picture of the structure of a social group, how this structure influences other variables, or how structures change over time (Wasserm at el, 1994).

Given the modern technology scholarship in the on line form of social networking have also emerged as articulated by Brian Stterfield (2006), according to the fore said scholar, Online social networking is a form of social networking which involves connecting and sharing of information with other like minded people via online sites such as yahoo groups, my space, of the most recent facebook and twitter as well as blogs.

A diagram depicting the networking pattern in Tanzania. Source KARDS (2009). The central position is maintained by IOM. (p61)

Despite the existing disparities in defining the concept of social network/ing yet their wide agreement on the interdisciplinary nature of the filed, it emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and other subjects just to mention but few. Jacob Moreno is a scholar highly credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships as structures in which people were points and the relationships between them were drawn as connecting lines. These approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks becoming wide spread in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s (Wasserm at el, 1994).

In practice, social networking could be argued to have existed throughout human history hence being as old as human history however, in literature some of the ideas of social network theory are found in writings going back to the ancient Greeks becoming much more evident during 19th enlightenment century.

In the late 1800s, both Émile Durkheim (1893) and Ferdinand Tönnies (1887) approached the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies  asserted that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (community) or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (society or organizations in this context). Durkheim (1893) gives a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that stands beyond the will and control of an individual. In connection to that, Georg Simmel (1908), writing towards end of the twentieth century, commented also commented on the nature of networks and the effect of network size basing on interaction and concluded that relations formed out of social interaction ends up making a loose network rather than forming a group.

Human Trafficking and counteracting Organizations in East Africa

On 15 November 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against Organized Crime, which came into force on 23 September 2003.  As a supplement to the Convention, with the aim to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the “Palermo Protocol,” was adopted. The Palermo Protocol defines “Trafficking in Persons” as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control of another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation in the said context refers to the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.”  (IOM, 2008)

However differently human trafficking might be defined basing on the variation of social context from cross time and societies. It is of no doubt that the Palermo protocol laid the foundation of the human trafficking across the globe that most countries blended in their laws forming the basis for operation amongst different actors including Civil Society Organizations in counteracting the phenomenon.

Reports demonstrates that, Human trafficking have emerged to become a global problem, affecting every region in the world. With accordance to the US Department of State’s 2007 Trafficking in Persons Report, it is  that estimated 600,000 to 800,000 individuals are trafficked across international borders, with millions more trafficked within their own countries, each year.

In connection to the above, the issue of Human Trafficking is dynamic and complex in its nature. It takes different forms and involves different actors. It has causes and effects and even outcomes to individuals, communities and families. Counteracting the problem under the given nature of modern globalist society makes it difficult for one single agency or approach to deal with the said problem. It does not mean that there can’t be single effective agency to deal with the issues of Human Trafficking but it means that no single institution or state agency can deal with human trafficking in its totality.  According to KARDS (2009) and  IOM (2011), the list of stakeholders which were identified to be potential in counteracting Human Trafficking in East Africa includes the following.

  • Law enforcement agencies (police, prosecution, immigration, children officers);
  • Judicial officers;
  • Social workers;
  • Local administration/leaders such as chiefs;
  • Labour inspectors/labour officers;
  • Recruitment firms/agencies;
  • Workers’ unions;
  • Medical staff;
  • Embassy and consulate workers;
  • Civil society organizations;
  • Church/religious leaders;
  • International CSOs;
  • Community members such as siblings, friends/peers, and relatives.

Further more, Civil Society Organizations in particular were said to be playing a supplementary to the government’s responsibility of helping victims of Human Trafficking, the following are the roles articulated in the studies by KARDS (2009) and IOM (2011).

  • Psychosocial and medical support services to Victims of Trafficking;
  • Life skills training to Victims of Trafficking;
  • Legal assistance to Victims of Trafficking;
  • Rescue and other emergency assistance;
  • Status reports on the Victims of Trafficking to appropriate authorities;
  • Family tracing and home visits;
  • Shelter and basic needs for victims;
  • Advocacy and awareness-raising on human trafficking;
  • Facilitating reunification and reintegration of victims;
  • Follow-up of reintegrated victims

The above situation forms the basis of the argument that almost all organizations have been dealing with an isolated aspect of the whole problem of Human Trafficking and hence calling for joint efforts for successful movement amongst Counter Human Trafficking organizations in East Africa but in also in the whole world if possible since the problem is becoming a global phenomenon. This means that social networking has much relevance for organizations so that they are capable of assisting one another in dealing with the issue of Human Trafficking in its totality and not just in isolated pieces of working as demonstrated above.

How can Social Networking occur among Organizations in dealing with Human Trafficking happen?

There are multiple ways in which social networking can be installed amongst organizations addressing Human Trafficking. The processes can take various forms and mechanisms depending on the existing relations on the ground. However there some of loopholes which could be used as entry points to forge relationships among organizations for counter Human Trafficking in East Africa.

Forging of formal partnership or coalition can help organizations dealing with Human Trafficking to be forging social networks or even forming informal coalitions to work together cross the East African region and beyond.

Having at-least regional events once or twice a year also stands a great potential for forging social network among those dealing with Human trafficking both organizationally and as individual activists working in the field makes things much more easy because they would work complimenting one another. Organization needs to discuss and come up with calendar of activities putting harmonizing and synergizing efforts.

Counter Human Trafficking organizations all over East Africa have the potential of establishing an annual update report whereby even dealer in the filed would share what is happening on his/her side. This will simplify looking for one another knowingly what one is doing somewhere leading into forged social networks that in turn collectively helps in achieving the goals.

In addition to that technology has made things much more effective and efficient. Organizations dealing with Human Trafficking in East Africa can explore the opportunity of online networking whereby establishes channels of communication such yahoo groups, face books, pages and twitter as well as blogs could be used to connect people for sharing information and materials amongst organizations dealing with Human Trafficking. Those are powerful connecting instruments in the current modern world and they are much more efficient than any other forms of social networking.


Instituting social networking among Counter Human Trafficking Organizations in East Africa needs to think beyond the box in two dimensions, one is the regional scope and second is the on operational framework. In terms of regional scope, efforts to forge social networking should look at the problem of Human Trafficking as a global phenomenon and not regional, this does not in anyway look down on the efforts to forge social networking among practitioners in East Africa but the intention is to broaden our thinking on how to install joint efforts in East Africa but also globally for best dealing the issue of Human Trafficking.

In terms of operational framework, Organizations counteracting Human Trafficking should see best ways possible to integrate other institutions bearing in mind that development can not be a one man show. There is a need to lobby for other organizations which do not have Human Trafficking as one of the areas to address to come on board since Human Trafficking is crosscutting issue if critically approached. Coalitions networks of socializing agencies such as religious institutions, learning institutions, and pear groups, Coalitions connecting Civil Society Organizations, women organizations networking, Youth Organization Coalitions and many others should also be integrated when we think of social networking towards successful counter Human Trafficking movements.

Connection initiatives to counter human trafficking with the media which has becoming a powerful tool for socialization in this 21st century, it would work more easily for social networking amongst Organizations dealing with the problem but with other stakeholders. Joint efforts could be formed with coalition of media houses for instance the Tanzania Media Council as well as the Jukwaa la Sanaa in Tanzania for awareness raising on Human Trafficking, the could be done all over the region (EAC) with regard to the concern their might be media forum connection East Africa.


1. Durkheim,      Emile (1893). The Division of Labor in Society, New York: Free Press. USA

2. IOM      (2008), Human Trafficking in East Africa: Research Assessment and Baseline      Information in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and Burundi, International Organization      for Migration (IOM) ,Geneva, Switzerland.

4. KARDS. (2009) Human Trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of women and children in East Africa available online here

3. Simmel,      Georg (1908). Soziologie, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.

4. Tönnies,      Ferdinand (1887). Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues’s Verlag.      (Translated, 1957 by Charles Price Loomis as Community and Society, East Lansing: Michigan State University      Press, USA.

5. Tonny      Odera and R. L. Malinowski (2011), Guidelines for Assisting Victims of      Human Trafficking in the East Africa Region, International Organization      for Migration(IOM) ,Geneva, Switzerland. Available online here

6. Wasserman,      Stanley; Faust, Katherine (1994). “Social Network Analysis in the      Social and Behavioral Sciences”. Social Network Analysis: Methods and      Applications. Cambridge University Press, USA.

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