Project replication

Replication means drawing on the vision, experience and practice of other projects or services and creating and implementing a similar project or service in your community. It does not mean the exact copying of a project or service.

Donor programs encourage development of innovative projects and services whose model, approaches or practices can be replicated by others. This model has been created to enable good ideas travel from one place to another. This makes replication of projects possible in different geographical and cultural environments, meeting different communities’ needs.



Project sustainability II

8. Create an enterprise

 Use your funding to start an enterprise or atleast an entrepreneurial project by the people themselves, so they have the incentive to continue the project  when funding comes to an end. This is because they will now have created other source of income. You might even want to consider using the funding as a loan not as a gift, to set the right tone and select the right collaboration partners. Or use the funding to trasfer the skills needed to solve their own problems/start their own enterprises. 

9. Address the resource costraints dimension

In most project implementations there are definite problems of resource constraints. Work within the resource constraints entails the best use of supporting to build from the present capacity. More inputs could be forthcoming commensurate to the increse in the capacity.  So whatever long-term outcome your project hopes to achieve will have to fit within the number of person-hours, amount of recurring regular income, equipment, etc. Then, the funding and resources that you put into the system should go towards “development” activities that are more akin to a capital investment. 

10. Bring in the local notables

It is very important to identify who are the leaders in the community and engage them from the beginning in the project. The leaders are often not the most obvious individuals identified (such as a political or religious figure), but might that person that everyone in the community goes to when they need advice on a certain aspect of their life. Capacitating and involving those individuals from the beginning ensures ownership and those responsibilities to continue driving the project once you leave. I would also recommend including a sustainable livelihood component to the project.

11. Create needs based projects

Most of the projects fail because they are supply driven, we should put more efforts to divert supply driven projects to demand driven areas. this will not only help in developing inspiration & motivation for other suffering areas and develop demand environment. We need to develop “need” in the community, we all know and accept “Necessity is the mother of invention”, if few create need/necessity it will automatically find its way of survival.  Secondly, development projects fails mainly for 2 reasons one lack of funding and lack of education. There is need to  create transparency to the intended benefit of the project “. this will ensure proper use of funds, and will motivate other for participation and add equity, just because of transparency we can really add value to the project. Last but not the least, you need bring education and awareness in the people so that they can get involved into the development cycle which will result in a cyclic development process.

A key question prior to starting any  development project is whether it is driven by demand or supply. If it is a demand driven project, based on a well-known and accepted community need already articulated by those living in the community, it is much more likely to succeed once external funding ends. Too often, supply-driven projects based on donor agenda or external “perceived” need fail to capture the attention and commitment necessary from the receiving community and thus fail quickly once external support ends.

12. Political support

Political support and support by the authorities or authorized bodies is a key factor for the sustainability of impact of development projects. It is important to find the right level of support: local, regional, national or professional organisations. Programs and projects are implemented within a wider policy environment. Government policies can have significant impact on the sustainability of development programs or projects. The policy framework should be analysed and taken into account during project design. Programs and projects which ‘fit ’ with Partner Government policies have much better prospects for sustainability as they are more likely to have high-level political and institutional support both during implementation and beyond.  

13. Technological appropriateness

To promote sustainability of rural projects, the technology to be transferred must be selected on the basis of its appropriateness in terms of technical and financial criteria, plus social, gender and cultural acceptability. According to Gawler (2005), development institutions need to ask themselves the following questions with regards to technology: Are the technologies and methods appropriate, given the technical, human and financial resources of the people who will use and maintain them? Can repairs be done, and spare parts obtained, easily and at reasonable cost? Do the project technologies maximize the use of local labour and materials? Will local staff and communities be able to use the methods, equipment and infrastructures, and maintain them themselves after the end of the project? The appropriateness of the asset, infrastructure or equipment must be assessed against these questions

Project sustainability I

More debate on this topic found here

Project sustainability entails strategies  put in place to ensure that project benefits  continue to be felt beyond the period of external donor support. There are various ways to look at this

1. Exit plan

The project should have exit plan, in absence of exit plan implementation team should work on preparing exit plan. The exit plan should have linking with the community and government department. So that the project intervention can take over and carryout support if needed. In any project or intervention all components are not scalable or sustainable, so it is important to identify which component is sustainable. Based on the well functioning component implementers can plan or design to make it sustainable.

2. Creating local ownership

Give  priority for creating sense of ownership and commitment among the targeted community to ensure sustainability after phasing out. One mechanism for sustainability is to elect executive committees from influential community members that own the project starting from the design. The committees are expected to secure the sustainability using local resources after end of the project. Some organizations sign tripartite agreement among themselves,  government administration and executive committee that become a platform to guarantees the sustainability of the projects.Lastly, weaning process by the partner funder should not be abrupt but be in line with the phasing out process. A strong sense of local ownership and genuine participation in design, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation by both men and women are critical to successful implementation and sustainable benefits, OECD (1989). Designs should build on local demand and initiatives. This requires that the stakeholders (i.e. the beneficiaries and local personnel) meaningfully participate and play a core role in the identification and design process. The idea should come from the community, belong to the community, and be a part of the community, it should be locally driven.

3. Building the capacity of beneficiaries

Sustainability is very key to any project and the key players to it are the beneficiaries themselves. When designing the project, we should ensure that the beneficiaries are allowed to get involved and create opportunities arising from the funded project. This will result into them exhibiting high ownership of the project. An example is given of a 2008 project created in Sichuan China after the earthquake. This project first trained women survivors on handcraft skills and secondly supported them to establish their own business. The third aspect of the assistance was in helping the women find marketing for their products. After the grant period, those women continued to run the business by themselves and are still benefiting from arising profits. 

4. Thinking process

Sustainability comes in where there is an abundance of locally available resources (human capital, land, water, vegetation and clean unpolluted air). It starts with a participatory involvement from project inception where the vision and the mission and mission of the endeavor are locally generated and not implanted. This is an empowering process that brings about mutual understanding between members and partners. The local communities organize themselves around the said endeavor, taking full control and responsibilities of their project/s (ownership) and being proud with their endeavor. External contributions only come to contribute to the local initiative instead of destroying it by replacing it.

5. Service Payment

Beneficiaries could also be made to pay for  service. It is believed that paying for the service contributes as a solutions to poverty by instilling discipline and responsibility. This solution is derived from market solutions that quash free charity debunking it to sentimentality. It is important however that the price of the services sold should lie in the space between market and charity if ever it is to assist the most vulnerable. For those not able to afford then pure charity could be explored.

6. Continuous local resource mobilization

There is need to  consider the aspect of continuous local resource mobilization to support the activity.  The establishment of a strong community organization, or the strengthening of the existing organizations which will continue to operate, manage the project efficiently and effectively after the end of funding is a critical step towards sustainability for all kinds of rural projects.

7. Maintenance and responsible use

Some projects such as warehouses, roads, building or training room will remain to be useable even when the period of project funding comes to an end. Even without external funding, the people in the community can maintain the infrastructure by providing volunteer services, i.e. cleaning and doing repairs. If there is a strong community organization, the leaders and members can take charge of these tasks as well as mobilizing other community members.

Sustainability of the green environment means that the project will not cause damage to the environment in the community. Examples of projects that may cause damage to the environment are roads that cause flooding due to improper design. If that happens, the road itself will be damaged eventually and the people will not support this project. Other projects such as handicrafts making which use plants available in the locale should ensure that the sources of raw materials for the project will not become extinct due to over harvesting. Therefore, the project should have a plan for re-planting or maintaining their natural habitat, in the case of forest flora and fauna. If any part of the project causes environmental damage, this project will be a burden instead to the people and will not be sustainable. 


Difference between a seminar, forum, conference, workshop and seminar

Source here

A forum (named after the Roman marketplace where citizens would gather) is a a discussion group, where ideas related to a subject ‘under discussion’ can be raised and evaluated on a (more-or-less) equal and informal basis. 
This compares with a debate, in which formally stated (and usually opposed) opinions are given by named speakers who then let an audience decide which is right. Contributions may be accepted from ‘the floor’ but it is mainly about what the speakers (who will usually be on a stage) have to say.
A forum will usually be arranged on a formal basis – arranging the venue, inviting the participants, deciding on the subject to be discussed – but would normally have an informal atmosphere where anybody can ‘have their say’. Whereas a debate will have a ‘chair’ to control things, the chair of a forum will more commonly be called a ‘moderator’ and will be there mainly to keep everything ‘focussed’.

A seminar is normally a tuition meeting, where participants come to learn about a particular topic. These can actually be any size, but are usually thought of as relatively small groups. Again, there will usually be speakers and a chair, but contributions from the floor will usually be in the form of questions only.

A quick note here about the word ‘chair’. This is used quite familiarly these days in place of the older word: ‘chairman’ – the person in the ‘big’ chair who sits ‘over’ the meeting. It is one of the words that, quite rightly, the women’s movement found objectionable, and from the late 1970’s we experimented with using chairman, chairwoman and chairperson as alternatives. This got rather complicated, and though all these words are still used, most people are happy just to use ‘chair’, which is also a verb in these circumstances (you ‘chair’ a meeting / the meeting ‘was chaired by’ … etc.).

A conference is a much larger gathering, usually at a large venue, involving a whole series of meetings – generally a mixture of forums, seminars, presentations of reports, and (possibly) debates – along with opportunities for even less formal discussions, such as simply being in the same bar as someone in your field that you haven’t met before.
‘Outside’ organisations, such as retailers and suppliers, will probably also be there, hoping to find markets and customers among the participants, who are usually called ‘delegates’ because they have either been invited or sent by participating organisations. There may also be ‘observers’ who do not have the same status as delegates, as they are there to see and learn, but not to make contributions to discussion or vote on debates. The people running a conference are usually referred to as the ‘organisers’.

Another word you might see is ‘convention’. This is similar to a conference, but less formal and usually centred around a mutual interest rather than a topic for, eg, business or science.

My dictionary seems to agree with me, but with less detail.


William Omondi

The Cash Transfers for orphans and Vulnerable Children (CT-OVC) programme is a government initiative that gives support to households taking care of orphans and vulnerable children with regular and predictable monthly cash payments payable after every two months.

For households to qualify for selection as beneficiaries they must:
1. Be taking care of orphans and /or other vulnerable children
2. Not be having a caregiver, who is formally employed, or receiving financial assistance equal to or more than KSH. 2,000/= per month
3. Be extremely poor


Eligible households that have been selected and enrolled into the Programme have a right to:
1. A monthly payment of Ksh. 2,000/= payable after every two months, payable after every two months, (Ksh. 4,000) subject to the availability of funds and your continued stay in the program as a beneficiary.
2. Free Payments from the PSP without giving anything or giving any favors.


1. As a caregiver it is your duty to ensure that you:
2. Collect household payments within the payment period. You will be informed in advance the payment dates.
3. Provide regular updates to your Beneficiary Welfare Committee member in your area about your household members whenever there is a baby born, marriage into or outside the households, death of a member of the household, change of school attended by benefiting children or change of hospital where your children go for immunization.
4. Take care of your Program ID Card, Payment card and the National Card. Losing any of these documents will result in you missing your payments until they are replaced.
5. Make sure all children living in your household aged 4 – 17 years are enrolled in primary school and attend school regularly.
6. Ensure you take all children in household aged 0 – 1 years to health clinics immunization, and those children aged 1 – 5 for vitamin A administration and growth monitoring.
7. Ensure you acquire a National ID card within 6 months of enrolling in the programme if you do not already have one.
8. Carry and produce both programme ID, Payment Card and the National ID card when you go to collect payments.
9. Ensure all children under your care are provided with basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter and are taken to a healthy facility for proper health care when sick.
10. Protect all children under your care from all forms of abuse such as exploitative labour, disinheritance, sexual exploitation and/or neglect.
11. Report any cases of child abuse to the local Chief or District Children’s Officer (DCO).
12. Report anyone asking for money or any other favors in exchange for programme benefits.
13. To appoint alternative care giver who will collect money in the event that you are not able to do so.


1. You cannot be removed from the programme unless:
2. You nolonger take care of an orphan or vulnerable child under the age of 18,
3. You fail to collect the payments for three consecutive payment periods,
4. You move to a new geographical location not covered by the programme
5. You are found to have provided false information to CT-OVC programme
6. You decide to leave the programme on your own


You should not give anyone favors to continue in the Program.

For any complaints, compliments or suggestions on the OC-OVC programme communicate your concerns through the following ways:

1. Mailing a letter to: OVC Secretariat
P.O. Box 46205 – 00100, Nairobi
“CT OVC Complaints”
P.O. Box 1611 – 068

2. Call this Free number:
0800 – 720 035
Send an SMS to: 0722 528 825
Call this number: 0703 830 957

3. Send an email to:
Or email to:

4. Complaining in person to:
• Nearest office of the Provincial Director of Children’s Services
• District Children’s Officer (DCO)
• The District Commissioner (DC) or District Officers (DO) offices
• Location OVC Committee (LOC) members
• OVC Secretarial Office in Nairobi Electricity House (Entry near the Standard Bank) 6th Floor- Door No. 1, next to Uchumi Supermarket-Aga Khan Walk.)
• Staff at health clinics or schools

Adopt a Light

Christine Wambui


I believe that it is possible to light up the whole of Kenya (Esther Passaris). 


Adopt-a-light was an initiative that was spearheaded in 2002 through self-funding corporation; with the intention of making highways and streets safer by lighting up Nairobi through advertising streetlights infrastructure. The city council of Nairobi paved way and gave the project the license to kick start.

Esther Passaris is best known for spearheading this business model which has a social positive impact in the Kenyan business. For the project to succeed, she brought on board powerful partners from the private sector to collaborate with the city council and Kenyan parliament through the Constituency development fund (CDF). Upon the early stages of the project, it was tricky for Passaris since the Nairobi city council was reluctant and did not fully back up the initiative.

Adopt-a-light initiative became active in 2005 in the slums; the aim of the project was to: Improve the quality of people’s lives by ensuring that public spaces — slums, streets, parks, neighborhoods — remain well lit after sunset through an effective partnership between the private and public sectors to finance and facilitate the installation of lights and in so doing, to improve security, safety and aesthetics of public areas, enabling populations to more fully enjoy their lives and participate in economic and recreational activity while at the same time providing financial sponsors with quality advertising services.” (Source: UN Habitat Business Award Report on Best Practice).

This project did not lack challenges. It was a problem to access the slums since they are densely populated. So as to overcome this challenge, local leaders and administrators had to join hands in order to find the most convincing locations to set up the lights. Also there were families which were relocated so as to provide space.

The steadman group also known as synovate Ipsos kenya limited conducted an impact study of the Adopt a light project. It found  that the rate of insecurity had greatly reduced in the slum areas and the residents were able to conduct their businesses  until late hours. The project had improved their social lives immensely as they were able to extend their income earning hours and walk home without fears.

Ushirikiano wa Wanakiambiu

Virginia Ngina Kisavi


Kiambiu Slum  is located near Moi Air Force Base Eastleigh South location. The place is inhabited by several Kenyan tribes. These tribes are a source of diversity bringing about a mixture of different cultures and values. At times too, spots of tension could be felt amongst them.

Sometimes back 2000 there were strong tribal sentiments among the residents of Kiambiu. These sentiments were especially strong among the Kikuyu who were the land owners and the Luos who were tenants. The people were therefore divided and could not associate positively, work or stay together. It even became difficult for Landlords to rent their houses to members of a tribe they did not have any positive regard towards preferring loosing rental income. This meant that no Kikuyu would rent a Luo his/her house.

After post election violence in 2007, some NGOs started civic education to improve the community trust levels, community members were empowered with skills which could help them come together. Self help groups were hence formed with the aim of promoting healing and generating income through “merry go rounds”. These small acts of healing helped in cementing relationships among different tribes and in time they started relating well with each other.

Ushirikiano wa Wanakiambiu was formed as the aftermath of all the associative and cooperation activities. It included several self help groups who came together with the ideas of forming an umbrella organization in the Kiambiu community. Implementing the idea initially was a challenge as people still mistrusted each other. The mistrust extended to the governance structures of the new collaborative endeavor. During organizational committee elections; every group fronted an official as they felt that if they did not do so, their interests would not be effectively represented. This mistrust was quite a challenge nearly bringing the governance process of the new initiative to a standstill and threatened its existence.

The initiative was able to address the so called teething problems of “mistrust”. It in time developed clear objectives and a set of activities. The group started to clean drainages every Saturday, collecting garbage. At the end of the activity each member to contribute 20 shillings for banking. These activities in the long run cemented the relationship amongst the residents of Kiambiu and they started talking about their common problem. Everyone agreed that there was a great need for a toilet in Kiambiu. Once this need was identified, the next step was to look for a site to put up the toilet. A member from the group decided to sell his plot to enable the toilet project to proceed. Once a site was found members went on with their usual contribution meanwhile officials searched for sponsors to help in the construction of the latrine. They later found a sponsor.

After one and a half month the toilet was complete and ready for use by the Kiambiu residents. This gave Ushirikiano wa Wanakiambiu job opportunities like fetching some water for the construction, , transporting the materials from the security base to the working area, digging of the sewer line to connect the main one and also guarding the building. During the time of use also the youth got employed as toilet attendants.

The new toilet project has changed the condition of Kiambiu which was  uncouth when there was no toilet. You could find flying toilets all over the streets and even along the houses. People never knew the importance of unity and cooperation but for now we have strong groups in Kiambiu. Three other toilets serving the community which are affordable by the residents with adults paying 3/= while children enjoy the services freely. The new toilets created new jobs. Apart from the toilets, members started other activities  which generate money for the group. This has developed Kiambiu as a slum with 220 members hence recruiting many more members every year regardless of ethnic groups. They get dividends every year and monthly allowance.

The story of Muungano wa Wanakiambiu is a story of Social Innovation. Social innovation occurs in situations where people think of developing simple solutions to community problems. The endervor started to unite the Kiambiu Residents not only achieved its aim but has also contributed immensely to improving their living conditions. There is a great need for integration of Kenyans not only in Kiambiu but in the entire country. The fact that there is prejudice makes us not being able to address our development needs.

A process of deliberate integration could lead us to  experience a change in social relations especially with regard to influencing the governance while increasing participation in social political process. This happens because the once excluded person feels that he or she has been integrated in the societal structures that alienated him or her in the past.

Decreasing social exclusion has many positive outcomes such as increasing integration independence and participation in various dimensions of life that helps people like their life respectively.


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