KENYA: Sex-trafficked women and girls also vulnerable to organ trafficking

Somali women refugees at Kenya refugee camp

Somali women entering Kenya via refugee camps are exceptionally vulnerable to human trafficking, including sex-trafficking and organ trafficking. Image: Isani Yardim Vakfi/IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation Turkey

(WNN) NAIROBI: With the highest rate of human trafficking in East and Central Africa, several nongovernmental organizations in Kenya are now under investigation by INTERPOL , the world’s largest international police organization, with 188 member countries. The Interpol Sub-regional Bureau for Eastern Africa is based in Kenya’s capital in Nairobi.

Young women as well as girls who are trafficked can also become a living supply for human body organ transplants.

“Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of using their organs, in particular kidneys, is a rapidly growing field of criminal activity,” says INTERPOL. “In many countries waiting lists for transplants are very long, and criminals have seized this opportunity to exploit the desperation of patients and potential donors,” continues Interpol.

The trail of corruption in Kenya may also reveal human trafficker’s collusion with Kenyan authorities which may include the police and intelligence, as well as the judiciary. This alleged collusion may enable the illegal industry to grow as it goes ‘unchecked’ inside the country.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most prevalent destinations for trafficked organs is Western Europe and the United States. These destinations have the highest number of patients waiting for a new kidney, liver, heart or pancreas.

Organizations currently under investigation are based in Kenya’s capital Nairobi and in Kisumu, Kenya’s third largest city. For legal reasons the organizations cannot be named since investigations are ongoing and there are pending court cases.

Investigations are also revealing that young girls under the age of 16 have been trafficked to Europe and the America’s.

“Victims are often misinformed about the medical aspects of the organ removal and deceived about the sums they will receive. Their health, even life, is at risk as operations may be carried out in clandestine conditions with no medical follow-up,” continues INTERPOL.

A growing number of naïve young women, who’s families are tricked by traffickers into thinking they will have a better life once they are in their respective western countries, can find themselves trapped inside an illegal organ ‘donation’ crime ring as their own organs are removed without their consent.

While many are trafficked for commercial-sex-work or for work as domestic household servants, a growing number of women are trafficked into and out of the Kenya for other purposes.

With the growing global rise of diabetes, along with the damage the disease can create in the kidneys, the demand for kidney transplants is on the increase. Currently Kenya has over six million diabetics and over 2 million people in need of kidney transplants.

Global organ trafficking is not something new.

“Organ trafficking appears to be occurring as flagrant and direct violations of the law of many countries with a flourishing of broker nations, intermediary brokers and corporations,” said the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. “The consequences are not merely for individuals; trafficking also has major “social, economic, medical and political” repercussions for involved countries,” continues the WHO.

Organizations in Kenya currently under the attention of INTERPOL are also being investigated on matters relating to local kidnappings of young women and girls who have allegedly been taken to backstreet Kenyan clinics in order to remove their internal body organs, such as their kidney and/or liver.

The Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNHCR) is also investigating over 15 Kenyan based organizations involved in collusion with the illegal practice. Investigations are also looking into the misuse of donor money which has been connected to human trafficking.

“It is a shame that organizations that are supposed to protect the voiceless are now abusing their rights,” said Omar Hassan, a commissioner with KNHCR. “Many senior Non Governmental Organization officials have become wealthy over a short period of time and cannot account for their wealth,” he outlines. In 2011 KNHCR has been receiving international acclaim in its efforts to fight justice.

Even though KNHCR has been active over the last year in exposing human traffickers, many obstacles have also been in the way. Individuals inside Kenya who are immune to legal accountability, despite the new 2010 Kenya constitution, are still part of the norm.

While the majority of women who enter Kenya with human traffickers are brought into the country for sex purposes, a growing number are entering the country largely to donate internal organs for what could be considered ‘a throw away fee.’ Some of the most unfortunate women are not paid anything for their contribution and only left for dead.

A percentage of these ‘donations’ come through backstreet clinics in Nairobi and Mombasa. The illegal procedure comes with many dangers. Unethical doctors involved in the organ trade are often short on proper or adequate training with safe transplant medical procedure.

Kidneys and pancreas are the most common human organs illegally transplanted. Illegal heart and corneal transplants are also found in Kenya.

Today a Kidney transplant in a well respected Kenyan hospital can cost as much as $20,000. But a poor South East Asian immigrant in Kenya can receive just $650 in a backstreet clinic in Nairobi for a donated kidney. In South Africa the price is much higher. Someone interested in selling their organs can be paid up to $20,000 or more to ‘donate’ a kidney in a public hospital.
Slum outside of Nairobi, Kenya

Women and girls suffering from extreme poverty are in much higher danger as victims of sex-trafficking. They can also be tricked into donating organs. Organ trafficking is a global human trafficking crime that includes many global partners. Victims of these crimes are those who often suffer the most from poverty. Image: MFFO

As the needs for kidneys increase throughout the world the rates for kidney transplants also rises. In 2007, the cost in Russia for the sale of one kidney was set at approximately $25,000. In 2011, the total medical expenses for a kidney transplant procedure supervised by a medical team in a standard U.S. hospital is a staggering $262,900.

The situation for organ trafficking is strongly dependent on supply and demand.

“In the United States for instance, kidney donations between 1990 and 2003 increased by only 33% while the number of patients waiting for kidneys grew by 236%,” says author and Professor of Medical Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley Nancy Scheper-Hughes.

Currently Kenya has no enforceable law that regulates the transplant of kidneys or other internal body organs. There is also no reliable law that protects women, men or children from this kind of trafficking. Analysts have blamed the growth of illegal back-street clinics performing organ removal to the lack of laws in the country.

Located near the bottom of the list by German human rights group Transparency International with a 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of 2.1, Kenya shares its position with Russia, Cambodia, Tajikistan and Congo-Brazaville.

Brought to the industry by a desire for financial gain corrupt government officials; organ brokers; airport officials; doctors and hospital personnel; police mortuaries and organ banks and repositories perpetuate the rise in the globalization of organ trafficking.

Recent 2011 improvements in corruption in Kenya have been visible though as judicial reforms aim to give stronger legal culpability to government officials causing some Kenyan leaders to face increased legal examination and accountability.

“Already, the country is in the process of extraditing a former Finance government Minister to the United Kingdom to face charges of money laundering,” says Judy Thongori, a family law attorney based in Nairobi.

Kenya’s new constitution is expected to come into full implementation in 2012 when the country holds its first election under the new system. With laws and policies on the table, lawyers say that justice inside the country will improve as new laws and the new constitution are fully established.

“Justice is still on since the constitution was promulgated last year. But we hope by next year, many of the pending cases will be solved fairly,” says Thongori. ”The new law gives hope to many Kenyans, unlike the previous one; it holds many leaders accountable for their actions.”

While numerous Kenyan women are trafficked outside of Kenya to provide human organs for organ transplants, many others are also trafficked into the country to provide live potential organ donors. Most women who become victims to these traffickers easily fall through the cracks, as many come to Kenya from conflict affected regions in and surrounding Somalia.

“Of late there have been so many migrants from Somalia who have been involved in all sorts of activities such as prostitution. Most illegal immigrants in the country come from war torn Somalia Republic,” continued Thongori.

In an attempt to slow the tide of trafficking, the Kenyan Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently working with respective countries to return trafficked children, who have been identified, back home to their families.

Organ trafficking is also an issue for children. According to the United Nations Convention Against Organized Crime, also known as the Palermo Protocol, outlines the punishment for traffickers, especially for those selling women and children through exploitation.

“Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs,” says the protocol.

Consent of the victim is “irrelevant” says the Palermo Protocol. Transporting, harboring and holding a child for exploitation is considered by the protocol to be ”trafficking in persons” even if none of the usual means of trafficking are employed.

“We are doing what we can to make sure that many of these children return safely to their families. It is not an easy process since the laws in some of those countries mostly in Western Europe give a lot of requirements,” said an official in the Kenyan Ministry of Foreign Affairs who is not allowed to speak to the media. In the past few months, the country has deported hundreds of illegal immigrants to their home countries as a way to battle human trafficking and dealing.

But how many legal patient recipients for organ transplants are most of the women in Kenya?

“…the circulation of kidneys followed established routes of capital from South to North, from East to West, from poorer to more affluent bodies, from black and brown bodies to white ones and from female to male or from poor, low status men to more affluent men. Women are rarely the recipients of purchased organs anywhere in the world,” says Professor Scheper-Hughes.

A new Birth and Deaths Registration Bill 2011, which is still in review in Kenya’s transitional parliament, may be instrumental in tracking illegal crimes in the human organ trade, which can happen easily without consent or public knowledge after death.

For the first time a formal registration of all deaths and births in Kenya will be “compulsory,” which hopes to help with the problem of illicit human organ harvesting. The ‘cause of death’ is also required to be included on all death certificates and signed by a medical officer who has knowledge or who has been in attendance at the death.

Under the new law, those taking charge of the body after death, such as administrators of funeral homes or mortuary facilities or other institutions handling a body following death, will also be traced and named


Cardinal Pengo’s take on key national issues

By Geofrey Nyang’oro
The Citizen Correspondent
Dar es Salaam. Polycarp Cardinal Pengo yesterday broke his silence and spoke out on a range of issues, including a new constitution and allowances for Parliamentarians.He also commented on ethics among public leaders, same sex marriages and the 50th Independence anniversary—all of them issues that have dominated national debate in recent times. Cardinal Pengo urged the government and other players to make sure that a new constitution is in place before the 2015 General Election. He was delivering a message to the nation on the Independence anniversary and the Christmas and New Year festivals.

If a new constitution is not available before the 2015 General Election, he cautioned, the country risks plunging into chaos “because everybody looks forward to having the new law in place ready for the elections”.  Cardinal Pengo added: “If we play with this new constitution agenda, the nation will be at peril. People have already complained about the inadequacies in the prevailing constitution.

They will not trust it for the General Election, therefore we need to have a new one. Because we have agreed that the current constitution is bad, we should take this issue very seriously.”

Political situation
The Catholic prelate expressed his dismay that, even after more than two decades, Tanzanians were not at ease with multi-party politics. “Many people are still living in the mono-party era and our perceptions and stand are based on the single party system. That is why a stand by the (ruling) party is generally taken as the position of the government.”

If the focus shifted to the constitution, he added, the problem would be solved by clearly stating and putting in place mechanisms that would make plural politics genuinely active in Tanzania.

Same sex marriages

The clergyman objected to a campaign, recently championed by the United Kingdom and the United States, to back the rights of gay people. “Homosexuality is craziness,” he said, before querying: “How can people of the same sex have a sexual relationship…they are meeting to do what?”

He warned those practising homosexuality that they were acting against God’s wishes and praised the government for rejecting outright donor conditions tying aid to recognition of same sex marriages.

Sitting allowances

The Cardinal said the rise by 185 per cent of MPs’ sitting allowances was clear evidence that Tanzanian leaders are selfish.

“Public servants and leaders should know that they are in their positions to save the masses,” he said. “They should emulate Jesus Christ, who was sent by his Father to save the world.”

He challenged the basis upon which the MPs raised their pay, which was that the cost of living had risen.  The leaders were not the only ones who faced a tough life, he argued. All Tanzanians had been hit hard and leaders should first think of the people they lead and not themselves.

50 year of independence

Tanzanians should continue to cherish their independence, he said, but they should also reflect on how they have benefited from the past 50 years.“Yes, we are celebrating, but how many did indeed celebrate and feel happy on that day (December 9)? Our leaders should ask themselves this question,” he said.

True independence does not involve only celebrations, he said, but also hard work which will assure Tanzanians prosperity economically, socially and politically.“Mwalimu Nyerere taught us that Independence is work,” he added. “This message should be treated the same way today. Without hard work, our independence will have no meaning.”

Strikes in universities

He urged the government to critically look at what ails the education system if it wanted to solve the recurring strikes in higher learning institutions. But he also had reservations about the means the students have used to demand their rights.

“There are ways of demanding for one’s rights without causing loss. Some youths from Dar es Salaam University came to me asking for advice. I told them that we are all aware that they should stand up for their rights, but there was no need to use force in doing so.”

Still, he said, the government should make sure that student problems at the universities are solved to avoid unnecessary confrontations.

TJRC wants children to be given special attention by the state

The Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission acting chair Tecla Namachanja Wanjala has urged the government to address the needs of children and support effective participation in future. She said children are often exposed to serious abuse such as torture, female genital mutilation, forced labour, rape and prostitution.

“It is unfortunate that during violent conflicts children are often the most vulnerable and thus form a particular target of human rights violations,” Namachanja said during the children’s hearings at the KICC yesterday. Through thematic and institutional hearings the commission seeks to investigate the context, causes and circumstances under which specific violations occurred and unveil their systematic character and motives.

The commission particularly seeks to unveil the ways in which violations reflect a pattern or systematic character of discrimination and exclusion. Children from Mombasa, Kisumu, Nairobi, Eldoret, Nakuru were present to testify before the commission by sharing their stories. Namachanja said the testimonies will be per selected representative children ‘s resulting from previous statement taking activities and hearings.

She said the TJRC will be able to better identify institutional and policy measures that will be taken into account in order to prevent the violations from happening again. Today the Commission will conduct institutional hearings which will create a space for organization and institutions working with children.

This include child protection agencies and key government ministries which will share experiences and expertise on behalf of the children. She said during the process stakeholders will be asked to present recommendations in relation to their experiences. The commission recently conducted individual hearings in all regions countrywide apart from the coast and listened to the truth of more than 500 Kenyans.

Children tell truth body how they were raped and burnt

By ally jamah

Emotions ran high in Nairobi as children related harrowing tales of defilement, torture, and violence to Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission.

Thirty-five children selected from across the country told the truth body how they were brutally defiled by police officers who were still walking scot-free.

Among those who gave testimony were children who were in the ill-fated Kiambaa Church at the height of post-election violence.

“I was defiled by a police officer who was supposed to take me to hospital. I was 14-years-old then. My family has attempted many times to bring the officer to justice but our efforts are being frustrated by the police themselves. What an injustice,” he said.

Another child revealed how she was defiled by an elderly neighbour in Nyeri and impregnated but police have been dragging their feet in bringing the culprit to book due to his influence.

escaped justice

“I had trouble giving birth. My birth canal was not big enough for a baby to pass through. I had to undergo surgery at great risk to my life. I feel even more pain that the man who defiled me has escaped justice,” she said.

The children made their testimonies in camera and their identities concealed.

“When I remember the day the church in Kiambaa was burnt while I was inside, I just shake uncontrollably in fear,” said a 14-year-old victim of the blaze that claimed 30 lives.

Members of the public who attended the hearings shed tears as the children related their ordeal in the hands of their tormentors. According to TJRC officials, the thematic hearings for children was to give them a chance to testify before the commission and share their stories.

“This session provides an opportunity for TJRC to zero in on patterns of violence affecting children, to unveil the systematic character of these violations and to understand their linkages to past and present violations, said TJRC acting chair Tecla Namachanja.


She explained that during violent conflict, children suffered the worst human rights violations and were often exposed to rape, torture, female genital mutilation, forced labour and prostitution.

Today, the commission will conduct institutional hearings that will create a space for organisations and institutions working with children, such as child protection agencies and key Government ministries, to share their experiences and expertise on behalf of children.

In addition, the stakeholders will be asked to present recommendations in relation to their experiences.

TJRC has conducted individual hearings in all regions countrywide apart from the Coast Province and listened to the testimony of more than 500 people.

Church’s bid to help prisoners mend ways

By Wambui Ndung’u

For many people, the name ‘prisoner’ conjures up images of a ruthless criminal who should remain behind bars for the rest of his or her life.

And quite predictably, even after they finish serving their time or are released on parole, ex-prisoners are still viewed with suspicion.

It is against this backdrop that a religious organisation launched a programme at King’ong’o Prison in Nyeri aimed at not only reforming prisoners, but also ending stigmatisation of ex-convicts.

In the programme spearheaded by Living Faith Church, prisoners are taught leadership skills and are also put through rigorous spiritual coaching and behaviour change sessions.

“We are involved in a holistic approach in the training to ensure that a prisoner becomes a better person when he leaves jail. We train them on behaviour change and also mentor them on leadership skills,” said Reverend Jack Kamere, the church founder.

Some of the inmates at the King’ong’o Prison awarded with certificates after completing a three-month training. [PHOTO: GEORGE MULALA/STANDARD]



He said although there was resistance by some prisoners when the programme was first launched, most inmates have since warmed to the initiative.

The programme marked a major milestone recently when 65 prisoners, who had undergone a three-month leadership, life skills and spiritual foundation coaching, graduated.

“When we started visiting the prison, we came to show them compassion and also brought them essentials. But we later realised the Government can give that so we decided to give them something that will stay with them forever,” said Kamere.

Those who undergo the training are expected to impart the skills they have acquired to fellow inmates.

Through the programme, the church hopes to help reduce cases of indiscipline in correctional facilities and recidivism (the act of ex-prisoners repeating the crime that landed them in jail).

Kamere said the church also intends to start a similar initiative at a nearby medium-security prison and women’s prison.

He said stakeholders should take advantage of the fact that correctional facilities are now accessible to the public to join efforts in rehabilitating convicts.

The training, which the church hopes would run on a regular basis, targets the social, moral and spiritual aspects of the inmates.

“Once we are able to do this, even the prison staff will have an easy job as there will be a general behaviour change,” said Kamere.

Under the programme, the church also helps integrate convicts who have completed their sentences into the society. The church also sensitises the public on the need to accept ex-convicts back into the society after they are released.

During the colourful ceremony at King’ong’o Prison in Nyeri, acting Provincial Prisons Commissioner Dickson Mwakazi also called on stakeholders to assist prison authorities offer different courses to inmates.

Use skills

He called on the public to assist those who have finished serving their jail terms start income-generating projects so that they can use the skills they learnt at the facilities to better their lives.

“You were not brought here to be punished but as a punishment,” said Mwakazi. On this day, there was palpable excitement at the facility and the prisoners who had undergone the programme could not conceal their joy for their achievement.

“The world out there is tough and such courses will help them reintegrate,” said Kamere. The graduands are expected to proceed to the next stage of the four-module programme next month.

One of the beneficiaries of the initiative, Nathan Maringa, who is serving a 20-year jail term, said he has greatly benefitted from the project.

“I have become genuinely repentant for what I did and have come to peace with myself,” said Maringa.

An ex-prisoner, Shadrack Njenga, who recently completed his 10-year prison term, says the skills he learnt during his incarceration have helped him cope with life outside prison.

He currently runs a carpentry business.The officer in charge of King’ong’o Prison, Patrick Aranduh, said since the inception of the programme, cases of indiscipline at the facility have gone down.

“Prison is a rehabilitation centre and this programme helps inmates not only change from without but from within,” Mr Aranduh said.

The programme is one among several others courses taught to inmates at the prison.

Aranduh urged inmates to take advantage of their time in prison to learn as much as they could.

East Africa: Human Trafficking Continues Unabated

This revelation came at a symposium on countering human trafficking held on 22 November in Nairobi that saw over 10 organisations in the region working against it, meet to seek interventions into ending the dehumanising crime.
Elisha 'seith' Moseti Ratemo

By Elisha Ratemo from  newsfromafrica

NAIROBI–Trafficking in persons in East Africa has been said to be a multifaceted phenomenon whose major driving force is the economic benefits attached to the illegal trade which is increasing concerns globally.
This revelation came at a symposium on countering human trafficking held on 22 November in Nairobi that saw over 10 organisations in the region working against it, meet to seek interventions into ending the dehumanising crime.

Over 50 participants took part in the three-day discussions organised by Koinonia  Advisory  Research and Development Service (KARDS) with co-sponsorship from other five religious groups: the International Religious Council of Kenya, Catholic Information Services for Africa, Trace Kenya, Jesuit Hakimani and the International Movement of Catholic Students.
This year’s symposium was mainly targeting the involvement of faith- based organisations who initially didn’t give the problem of human trafficking prominence in their interventions, and also finding solutions at the grassroots levels.
Richard Ochanda, the lead consultant with KARDS says  a study done at the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts in 2008 and 2009,  revealed that many non-governmental organisations working to counter human trafficking needed capacity building to effectively handle evolving challenges.
Mr. Ochanda added that the idea of having a counter human trafficking  programme started with the long experiences of Koinonia Community in working with vulnerable populations such as the street children and the refugees. Since these populations have weak family ties, whatever happens to them usually goes un-followed or unreported.

“In the year 2006 Fr. Kizito [founder of Koinonia Community] wrote a book “Shiko” which depicted life of one street girl who had gone through horrendous experience,” he says. “This made us look deeper into the problem and extent to which people leave home for urban centres where they go through such pain in the hands of those they trust.”

An estimated 600,000 to 800,000 individuals are trafficked across international borders each year with millions more especially women and children trafficked within their own countries. The UN agency for drugs and crime (UNODC) describes human trafficking as one of the most profitable activities of crime groups worldwide, which like many other forms of criminal activities, takes advantage of conflicts, humanitarian disasters and vulnerability of people in situations of crises.

UNODC also  established the blue heart campaign against human trafficking in the year 2010. The Blue Heart Campaign’s goal is to inspire people and mobilize support for action against human trafficking by international organizations, governments, civil society, the private sector and ultimately by individuals. The Blue Heart also aims to enable citizens to show their support to the cause and to increase understanding of, and create urgency around the issue of human trafficking in order to spur coordinated actions to fight the crime. The intention is that the Blue Heart becomes the symbol for human trafficking as the red ribbon is the symbol for HIV/AIDS.  The blue heart campaign takes cognizance of the following facts:

  • It is estimated that 2.4 million people throughout the world are lured into forced labour as a result of human trafficking at any given time. (ILO, 2005)
  • Women  and  girls  account  for  about  80%  of  the  detected  victims.  Child  trafficking  accounts for  about  15-20%  of  the  victims.  Child  trafficking  has  been  detected  in  all  regions  of  the world, and in some countries is the major form of trafficking detected. (UNODC, 2009)
  • Sexual exploitation accounts for about 80% of the detected cases. Experts believe trafficking in  persons  for  forced  labour  is  greatly  under-detected  or  that  it  is  mostly  prosecuted  under other offences. (UNODC, 2009)
  • In  30%  of  the  countries  where  the  gender  of  the  offender  was  known,  more  women  were convicted for human trafficking related offences than men. (UNODC, 2009)
  • The  United  Nations  estimates  the  total  market  value  of  illicit  human  trafficking  at  US$32 billion. (ILO, 2005)
  • The  data  on  detected  cases  show  that  intra-regional  trafficking  in  persons  (within  a  region) was  predominant  in  most  countries  and  that  trans-regional  (across  regions),  though  still significant, was relatively less frequent. (UNODC, 2008)
  • Domestic trafficking was detected in at least 32 countries among those where information was available, and in some countries, it is a major issue. (UNODC, 2008)

Recent major cases on human trafficking in Kenya have been those involving employment seekers in the middle east countries where victims have fallen into traps of rogue agents or employers who abuse them in every manner, even killing them. These is also alot of unreported cased of domestic human trafficking.
Albert Masawe of Reintegrated Efforts for Social Transformation (REST) an NGO based in Dares Salaam that works against human trafficking talks of superstitious culture in Tanzania that propagates trafficking mainly blamed on poverty. “Unlike victims in many other countries where major cases of human trafficking are for sexual causes, in Tanzania they are charmed for their organs,” he says. He gave an instance where organs such as human hands are used in the belief that they entice prospects for minerals in mines.
Tanzania has had alarming incidences where albinos, believed to possess special charms are trafficked across the region for their organs to make witchcraft paraphernalia. This led to international outcry for more strict legislations by the government against those found engaging in the trade.

Longstanding conflicts in the region have also led to widespread human trafficking, targeting mostly the vulnerable children and women. Abductions in northern Uganda, southern Sudan and DR Congo have been considerably for military services and sexual servicing of soldiers.

The Human Rights Watch estimates that over 20,000 children alone have been abducted by the Uganda’s Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) since the beginning of its terror. It relies on trafficking because of lack of public support for its activities where they have been raiding and pillaging on local communities.

Caroline Gathu, assistant director at HAART, a counter human trafficking group working in Kenya says most trafficking cases are said to involve the youth who ironically are creating demand for activities or services linked to it.
“By consuming pornography, engaging in prostitution other social vices leads to the commodification of persons which in essence fuels human trafficking statistics. Irony is that it’s the same generation that is falling prey to the trade,” she says.
Ms. Gathu proposed for need to cut on issues that create  the demand, calling on all anti-trafficking NGOs to ensure orchestrated efforts against peril which cuts across all religions and cultures. Though the awareness of human trafficking is still limited, not many government policies or strategies are formulated and in place to effectively prevent and combat its trends.
Dr. Andrea, a lecturer at UNILAC Institute’s cultural department identifies human trafficking as a major problem in the society. The aspect of refugees in the Great Lakes region has proven their vulnerability to the trade, which he terms as being a form of a money making cartel that draws in various stakeholders in the unlawful industry.
He says the symposium was organised to focus on this aspect and seek ways of how people as a community will find solutions against it within themselves.
“People should join together in all efforts and at all costs to fight human trafficking. Victims should in a better manner be integrated back to society and their life normalised.”

The symposium came up with resolutions that called on other institutions in the East African region to seek measures to end poverty, which has been identified as a major push in the trade that is rendering people vulnerable.
A succeeding similar symposium is expected to be held early next year in Dares Salaam, Tanzania where reports from these two meetings will be compiled into a manual that will aid institutions and organisations working against human trafficking in their duties.



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