Gender Mainstreaming Training II

By Sammy Mwangi

The Principles of Gender

An efficient Gender mainstreaming specifically involves .

  • Providing that the voices of men/women are heard equally and that both have equal say in decision –making in various aspects of life.
  • Ensuring that in all sectors ,policy formulation is undertaken on the basis of
  • Sex-disaggregated data and with an awareness concerning the differential impacts of policy decision on the lives of men/women.

Sex-disaggregated data

Means every data information is classified by sex representing information separately for women /men, boys/girls.

Gender analysis


  • Critically addressing the issues related to men/women.
  • Making sense of information gathered in relation to women/men needs.
  • Collecting information and making them sensible

What is gender analysis?

Is a used to understand relationships between men and women their access to resources their activities and the constraints they face relative to each other.

Gender analysis:

Provides information that recognizes that gender and its relationships with race, religion , culture , class ,age and or other status is important in understanding different patterns of involvement behavior and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures.

Gender analysis is concerned with the underlying causes of inequalities.

Gender analysis recognizes that:

  • Women and men’s lives and therefore experiences needs , issues and priorities are different.
  • Women’s lives are not all the same!
  • Gender analysis aims to achieve Equity, rather than equality

What can gender analysis tell us?

  • Who has access
  • Who has control
  • Who is likely to benefit from a new initiative or class

Where is gender analysis used?

  • Required for all policies, programmes and projects
  • When in the process  gender  analysis applied
  • Throughout the entire development process.

Gender analysis is a critical issue in addressing gender needs and is the benchmark to understanding the community.

Who undertakes Gender analysis?

  • Analysts ( analysts have a pre-determined positions/ information which is informed sometimes risky)
  • Policy –makers
  • Programme managers /coordinators to work in partnership with women leaders, youth, women groups, religious groups, elders and others.

Tools for gender analysis

A variety of tools have been developed but each tool is different with some advantages and disadvantages as others are more participatory.


  • Not easy to get an impartial analyst/need an intellectual maturity.
  • Lack of objectivity/ methodologies involved for analysts
  • Thought of money involved by the people to give information
  • Apathy
  • Literature review in addition to the research done to address the need

Gender sensitive indicators

Suggestions on indicators

  • An impact
  • A sign
  • A measure which shows quality, quantity.

A reflection of the progress which can be either be positive or negative.

Gender sensitive indicators defined:

Indicator :-a measure or fact which provides an effective mechanisms to ensure that programmes and projects give the consideration to the different roles and responsibilities of different members of society which are often overlooked, yet crucial to the success of any development efforts.

Types of indicators

Risk/enabling indicators: these indicators measure the influence of factors such as socio-economic, socio-cultural, environmental, legal and political factors that are external to project and contribute to its success or failure.

Input indicators

Input indicators identify one assess the resources at the disposal of the project such as funding, human and non-human resources as well as infrastructure.

Process indicators

Process indicators measure project implementation and as such provide monitoring

Output indicators

Output indicators measure the immediate effects of the products and services delivered by the project

Outcome indicators

Outcome indicators aim at revealing the long-tem effects and the overall impact of the projects.

 Impact indicators

Criteria for selecting indicators.

Involve several people identifying indicators including those who will collect data , those who will use the data and those with technical experience to understand strengths and limitations of specific measures.

Examples of gender sensitive indicators


  • Number of women who attended gender mainstreaming workshop.
  • Number of employment of opportunities for women allocated.


  • Level of participation during sessions
  • Degree of participations.

Gender –Based Appraisal/review

  • This is a crucial before policy and programme implementation.
  • It involves analysis of potential effects of the policy proposal from a gender perspective.
  • It can be used as a tool to review existing projects /programmes to ensure that gender –sensitive

Issues to be considered

How many and which men/women have been consulted about this policy and at what level?

How many and which women/men are included in its implementation?….are affected by the policy on the basis of workloads, time use, decision making.

Input from participants

Women In Development (WID)

  • Was an approach in the 70’s
  • Focused on productive roles of women, development of programmes for women who did not have income.
  • Over-burdened women more and threatened the relationship of man and woman

Gender and Development (GAD)

  • Incorporated man and woman


  • Is a world-wide movement fighting women rights i.e. political, social, economic.
  • Fight for women equality

Types of Feminism

  1. 1.       Liberal feminism

Believe socio legal reforms thru policies and equal opportunities for women

  1. 2.       Marxists  feminism –

The cause of the problem is not man but capitalism and believes that man is also oppressed

Eliminate class

  1. 3.       Socialism feminism
  • Oppressors
  • Capitalism
  • Patriachism
  1. 4.       Radical feminism
  • See gender/male as enemy
  • Want to create female dominated culture.
  • The target is the women but they see things differently

Gender fair

Men and women share equally in responsility, power

Gender gap

  • The gap between men/women in terms of benefits in education, employment,
  • Stereo type/exaggerated
  • Belief on image about someone else
  • Are the first step in oppression
  • Emanate from an incident
  • Is worst level dehumanizing
  • A convenient way to avoid the truth

Gender subordination

  • Oppression of opposite sex to have no control.
  • Reactions

Some approaches on gender are extremist trying to bedevil men

Intellectual deviate from addressing the gender issue and  running away from the real issues by being too abstract.


Gender Mainstreaming Training I

By Sammy Mwangi


This We Believe

We believe

Creation and future

Dwells within the

Creativity of women

And feminine of men

Women and men are

Equal And beautiful

Creation of God

Freedom of both to choose.

Women have as much

To offer

As men to the community

That if the community is people,

Each person has a right

To be part of the functioning

And power of the community

To make decisions

Women and men are inter-dependent

And complementary (not opposed)

And must work as equal partners.

Women have the right

To discuss any matter.

Women are “long-sighted”


As well as without.

Women are good supporters (nourishers)

Women are “quiet achievers”.

Women have reflected

On their reality

And are acting out.

Women have inner strength

And “hold things together”.

Women have sense of responsibility

And cope in difficulties.

Women are “stayers”

Women develop unselfishness

Within their family relationship                                                                                                              

-from the Bidwell Women’s Group


  • The poem sets the agenda for women
  • Considers women and what they can offer
  • Understand the concept of the dynamics of gender
  • Women as equal partner with men.

Pornography in Arusha

 Children watch them freely in shacks and homes. By the Arusha Times

Pornographic materials especially full length films and videos are becoming a ‘free-for-all’ affair in Arusha Municipality and its suburbs, this paper has discovered.

As home entertainment technology advances, Arusha streets keep getting filled with all types of digital media materials most  of them being imported films, videos and music but also some of the viewing materials not suitable for under-age youths have also been saturating the market.

Investigations conducted around town have revealed that, either out of ignorance or purposely, traders are now displaying  and distributing around lewd films and videos and do not seem to care who the buyers turn out to be and in this case most are youths and even children.

The ‘blue movies’ wide distribution is being fuelled by recent mass availability of films-on-discs such as those recorded or burned on Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs), Video Discs (VCD) and highly compressed CD-ROMs and the new high-capacity technology known as Divx.

All these are being sold freely and relatively cheaply in town by mobile disc hawkers, film outlets and retail shops. The price for a single DVD disc range between Tsh. 2500 to Tsh. 3500, but those containing materials ‘unsuitable for children’ are sold at a much higher price tag, starting with Tsh 5000 going up.

“Few people buy films nowadays as most can easily download them online, business is bad because the market is saturated with hundreds of readily available, cheap film titles,” stated a retailer who runs a shop in Pangani area.

It has been discovered that most of the movies are pirated ‘Hollywood’ materials majority of them coming from China and Hong-Kong but there are others made in Dar-es-salaam.

In the past, blue movies were things found in TV shacks in slums area where people would pay between Tsh. 100 and Tsh. 200 to watch films and live soccer matches. These shacks are common in Ngarenaro, Kijenge and Unga-Limited areas. They reportedly also continue to screen pornographic films during the night.

But, Some youths enjoy surfing such contents via the World Wide Web; those in the know-how even burn copies from the free sights.

As for the street peddled blue movies the customers are said to be youngsters and since most schools are closed, buyers are currently in plenty. John (not his real name), vends CDs in town and he bristled when asked why he was selling ‘dirty’ movies to minors.

“I never watch the films I sell and they are many of them, if some happens to have nude scene then that has nothing to do with me, besides all modern movies feature some dirty scenes, yes even those being produced locally,” he retorted.

Meanwhile in effort to reduce pornographic content surfing, a number of Internet booths (cyber cafes) have started to post notices in their walls restricting opening of sex oriented web pages some threatening penalties of up to Tsh. 5000 per person.

In recent months  Arusha’s Regional Commissioner Isidore Shirima  condemned the  practice of  screening pornographic material, and  especially  to children,  vowing that he would make sure that the infamous movie shacks in  slums  areas  would be forced to closed down.  Since he made that vow  more of them  opened undeterred.



Tanzania’s fight with pornography here and here
Concern over the flourishing porn industry here 
Research shows that girls as young as 9 are in the Arusha sex industry P35 here 

Stranded IDPs Resettled, Kitale, Kenya

NAIROBI, May 6, 2011 (CISA)-
A Church official in the Catholic Diocese of Kitale,  close to the Kenya/Uganda border,  has confirmed to CISA that the recently stranded 255 internally displaced persons (IDPs) families in Kitale Town have finally been resettled on a Government-purchased land  at Chepchoina,  thirty kilometers from the town.
In a telephone interview with CISA on May 5, the Director of Justice and Peace Commission, Kitale Diocese, Mr. Leonard Barasa said, “at least I  can confirm that  the stranded IDPs families have  finally been resettled at another farm, the Government has purchased for this purpose.”
The local community, led by some of their leaders had opposed the resettlement.
Initially, the stranded IDP families would have been resettled at a Government land at Endebes, but there was a strong opposition of the move by the local community, led by their leaders, including a Cabinet minister.
“As I talk to you, Government officials, through the Office of the District Commissioner, are busy resettling these IDP families. Each will be allocated two and quarter acres of land.” Mr. Barasa further told CISA.
He added that as soon as the families are settled, his office, the Justice and Peace Commission, will move in and undertake civic education on peacekeeping and reconciliation to both parties, the local community and the in-coming IDP families.
“This, we feel is very central for the two parties”   explained Mr. Barasa.
“Our concern is that if this is not done there is a possibility of ethnic clash resurfacing, hence the Church’s strong feeling that the two parties are fully prepared to live harmoniously”, he added.
“With the country’s next general elections scheduled for next year, 2012, the Church strongly feels that she should effectively preach on peace-keeping and reconciliation to communities in volatile areas.” he added.
The genesis of the current IDP crisis was the 2008 Post Elections Violence after the country’s 2007 controversial General Elections that led to the formation of a coalition Government.
An estimated half a million people were internally displaced, over 1,000 killed and properties worth millions of Kenyan shillings destroyed.
Meanwhile an official from the Ministry of Special Programmes confirmed to CISA that the 255 IDP families have been resettled.
“As per the Government arrangement, each of the legitimate IDP family will be allocated a piece of land and put up a two-roomed house for each family,” explained the Government officer
He welcomed the Catholic Church’s move to educate the local community and the in-coming IDP families on peacekeeping and reconciliation.
“Our appeal would be that whatever they plan to do, they should ensure that the Government is involved. Otherwise we appreciate the Church involvement in matters pertaining to IDPs,” he added

Threats to the resettlement and reintegration of IDPs, Kenya

NAIROBI, April 29, 2011(CISA

see also a tale of false threats and lies here

The government’s human rights agency in Kenya has complained heavily that some politicians are frustrating the current work of resettling Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs).
In a press statement, released by the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) on April 29, 2011, cited a recent case on Tuesday, April 19, 2011, where about 255 families of IDPs were transported from Rongai in Nakuru, Rift Valley Province, to be resettled in Trans Nzoia district in the same Province.
“The Government had identified three farms in Endebbes at Chepchoina, Kapkoi and Kerita on which to resettle the IDPs. However, residents and local leaders, including Cabinet Minister Noah Wekesa and Member of Parliament for Sirisia, Moses Wetangula, have reportedly expressed opposition to the resettlement of IDPs in “their area”.
The human rights body pointed out in a four-page press statement, entitled Threats to the resettlement and reintegration of IDPs.
The planned resettlement has temporarily stalled in the face of stiff opposition by residents, says the human rights body.
It adds that the affected IDPS have now been forced to camp at Soil Conservation Primary School in Kitale Town under harsh conditions. It remains unclear what their fate would be once the school reopens in a week’s time, stressed the human rights body.
The human rights body also cited another incident where efforts to have IDPS resettled have been heavily frustrated.
 “On April 6, 2011, under similar controversial circumstances, the Government was forced to shelve a planned resettlement of approximately 850 IDPs on Rose Farm in Mau Narok following resistance from the Maasai Community and local leaders including Heritage Minister William Ole Ntimama. The local community said the land was their ancestral land and has since gone to court over the matter”.
The rights body reminded that IDPs, like other Kenyans, have every right to settle to settle anywhere in the country.
“Under article 39 of our Constitution, all Kenyans, including IDPs,  are Kenyans too and have the rights to settle anywhere in the country. Statements made by leaders bordering on intolerance and incitement against Kenyans who are IDPs undermine the provisions of the Constitution and are a breach of existing law. We remind everyone, particularly our leaders that statements that depict IDPs as ‘outsiders’ in certain places feed the same sentiments of hate and intolerance that brought about their displacement in the first place,” says the human rights body.
The rights body said that no substantive consultation with communities where IDPs are being resettled and this has been the cause of resistance and tension between these communities and IDPs.
Meanwhile Catholic archbishop for Kisumu archdiocese, The Rt. Rev. Zacchaeus Okoth on April 25 said IDPs   should be settled in their original areas.
The continued tossing around of post elections violence victims was unacceptable, he said as he presided over a funds drive for a convent at Mbaga near the Lake City of Kisumu.
“Resettling IDPs in area that are choking with landless people was not a wise idea. Efforts should be directed towards reconciling   Kenyans and having them go back to their farms,” said the Catholic prelate, who is current Chair of the Catholic Bishops Commission for justice and peace.
Each Kenyan came from somewhere, and this must be traced first for us to have a permanent solution to this problem, he added.
 John Cardinal Njue on his Sunday Easter homily at Nairobi’s Holy family minor Basilica described the IDPs issue as quite solvable.
“I do not think that the issue is insolvable. It is quite solvable, what we may be lacking is effective commitment of each of us, and more so the Government.”
The genesis of the current IDPs issue sprang up as a result of the country’s December 27 2007 controversial general elections, which resulted the infamous early 2008 post elections violence.
 As a result of the issue-post elections violence, an estimated over 1,000 were reported to have been killed, over 300,000 people reported to have been internally displaced and properties worth millings of Kenyan shillings reportedly to have been massively destroyed.
UNDP Policy on Early Recovery Here
Migration and displacement South of Sahara here
Long road home here
Strengthening early recovery for comprehensive reintebration of IDP returnees here
Out in the cold: Kenya IDPs here
Methodology: Rapid assessment on IDPs here
Conflict update in Northern Uganda here
Handbook for protection of IDPs here

Slum fire Kills woman and leaves hundreds homeless


NAIROBI, March 8, 2011 (CISA) –
One woman was reportedly found dead in her house and hundreds of dwellers of Deep Sea Slum in HighRidge Nairobi, Kenya left homeless after a fire gutted their houses and destroyed property of unknown value today March 8.
The fire that started at around 1pm reportedly from an electric malfunction found most people at work and so they were not able to save their property.
Those who were able to save their property threw them into the walls of the neighbouring Clinic and Afrikasi Nursery school run by the Consolata Missionaries which at one point the first spreading fire threatened to consume.
The nursery school children, most of whom live in the slums had gone home early to allow the teachers to hold a staff meeting in the school.
 A combined effort of firefighters from private security organizations and the National Youth Service (NYS) finally managed to put off the fire and saved the school and clinic.
The slum has mostly illegal connections to electricity a fact that could be attributed to the electric malfunction though the slum dwellers say some rich individuals want to evict them from the area and to build on the piece of land.
This fire comes in less than a week since another fire razed down another slum in South B area and Kangemi in of Nairobi.

DR CONGO: New Comic Book to help Fight Violence against Women


FRANCE, March 8, 2011 (CISA) –
A Congolese cartoonist is among 24 artists who have contributed to a new comic strip book to fight violence against women.
The new comic strip, launched ahead of the International Women’s Day in France on Monday March 7, 2011, is the work of 12 men and 12 women.
In the comic strip album, Congolese cartoonist Pat Masioni has produced a story that evokes the horrific violence against women in Central Africa and other parts of the continent.
Masioni depicts a character called Maya who undergoes verbal and physical abuse. The last box of his strip is black, to represent the death of dignity that Maya suffers.
“With her, I want to pay homage to all the anonymous women in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who are alive or dead, are  victims of the shameful violence that exists in the world,” Masioni states in his introduction.
The new French comic book is titled: En chemin elle rencontre..  (On the way, she met…). It is edited and published by Marie Moinard, director of the small publishing company Des ronds dans l’O, and a cartoonist herself.
The book looks at rape, verbal aggression, domestic cruelty and other kinds of violence and clearly shows the consequences for women. But it also outlines women’s legal rights, alongside the thought-provoking images.
The French publisher thought this would be a “perfect” medium for raising awareness among both young and old.
The launch brought together cartoonists, an outspoken French singer, a psychiatrist who treats victims of violence, and artists who support women’s rights.
“The book comes from the humanist conviction and the fierce belief that the incidents of violence must stop, and that equality between men and women must be respected,” Moinard said.
Known as bandes dessinées (drawn strip) in France, comic books enjoy a popularity that cuts across age, gender, class and skin colour, Moinard said. As such, the medium can be used to sensitize readers about serious and difficult issues.
The title of En chemin is drawn from a French children’s song that tells the story of a girl meeting four boys while out on a walk. Each of the boys touches a different part of her body, with the song implying that the girl enjoys the violation. A verse states that “men are pigs” but that “women like pigs.”
“This is a song that children sang at holiday camps,” said Muriel de Gaudemont, a spokeswoman for Amnesty International, France.
“I used to sing it myself, and it illustrates the mentality that women are somehow to blame for the violence that they suffer,” she said.
De Gaudemont told IPS that violence against women is one of the “greatest scandals” in the area of human rights.
“Everywhere in the world, women are too often the victims of humiliation, rape, mutilation, murder or lack of access to healthcare,” she stated.
One of the book’s sections is based on the lyrics of a disquieting song by the rising French singer Agnès Bihl, who gives voice to subjects often considered taboo.
Titled Touche pas à mon corps (Don’t touch my body), the song deals with incest. The story it tells is illustrated in red and black by artist Nathalie Ferlut, in which readers are made aware of the impact on the child.
At the launch of the comic strip book, Bihl performed the song in a way that touched the audience, both through the lyrics and her delivery. The “narrator” is a child begging the father she loves to stop what he is doing.
The 36-year-old Parisian singer told IPS that it was an honour for her to be part of the comic strip book project because the subject of violence against women and girls needed to be brought into the open.
“Children should know that incest is not normal. We need to make this subject less taboo. It is a terrible thing to experience incest, and it is also terrible not to be able to talk about it,” Bihl said.
She said that each time she performs the song; there are individuals who approach her afterwards to talk about their experiences. She told IPS that two children who had listened to the song recently revealed to their mother that they had been abused by their father.
“For people who have lived through this, I want them to know when they hear the song or read the bande dessinée that they are not alone. And for people who haven’t experienced incest, they should know that it could happen in their families,” Bihl said.

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