Gender Mainstreaming Training II

By Sammy Mwangi

The Principles of Gender

An efficient Gender mainstreaming specifically involves .

  • Providing that the voices of men/women are heard equally and that both have equal say in decision –making in various aspects of life.
  • Ensuring that in all sectors ,policy formulation is undertaken on the basis of
  • Sex-disaggregated data and with an awareness concerning the differential impacts of policy decision on the lives of men/women.

Sex-disaggregated data

Means every data information is classified by sex representing information separately for women /men, boys/girls.

Gender analysis


  • Critically addressing the issues related to men/women.
  • Making sense of information gathered in relation to women/men needs.
  • Collecting information and making them sensible

What is gender analysis?

Is a used to understand relationships between men and women their access to resources their activities and the constraints they face relative to each other.

Gender analysis:

Provides information that recognizes that gender and its relationships with race, religion , culture , class ,age and or other status is important in understanding different patterns of involvement behavior and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures.

Gender analysis is concerned with the underlying causes of inequalities.

Gender analysis recognizes that:

  • Women and men’s lives and therefore experiences needs , issues and priorities are different.
  • Women’s lives are not all the same!
  • Gender analysis aims to achieve Equity, rather than equality

What can gender analysis tell us?

  • Who has access
  • Who has control
  • Who is likely to benefit from a new initiative or class

Where is gender analysis used?

  • Required for all policies, programmes and projects
  • When in the process  gender  analysis applied
  • Throughout the entire development process.

Gender analysis is a critical issue in addressing gender needs and is the benchmark to understanding the community.

Who undertakes Gender analysis?

  • Analysts ( analysts have a pre-determined positions/ information which is informed sometimes risky)
  • Policy –makers
  • Programme managers /coordinators to work in partnership with women leaders, youth, women groups, religious groups, elders and others.

Tools for gender analysis

A variety of tools have been developed but each tool is different with some advantages and disadvantages as others are more participatory.


  • Not easy to get an impartial analyst/need an intellectual maturity.
  • Lack of objectivity/ methodologies involved for analysts
  • Thought of money involved by the people to give information
  • Apathy
  • Literature review in addition to the research done to address the need

Gender sensitive indicators

Suggestions on indicators

  • An impact
  • A sign
  • A measure which shows quality, quantity.

A reflection of the progress which can be either be positive or negative.

Gender sensitive indicators defined:

Indicator :-a measure or fact which provides an effective mechanisms to ensure that programmes and projects give the consideration to the different roles and responsibilities of different members of society which are often overlooked, yet crucial to the success of any development efforts.

Types of indicators

Risk/enabling indicators: these indicators measure the influence of factors such as socio-economic, socio-cultural, environmental, legal and political factors that are external to project and contribute to its success or failure.

Input indicators

Input indicators identify one assess the resources at the disposal of the project such as funding, human and non-human resources as well as infrastructure.

Process indicators

Process indicators measure project implementation and as such provide monitoring

Output indicators

Output indicators measure the immediate effects of the products and services delivered by the project

Outcome indicators

Outcome indicators aim at revealing the long-tem effects and the overall impact of the projects.

 Impact indicators

Criteria for selecting indicators.

Involve several people identifying indicators including those who will collect data , those who will use the data and those with technical experience to understand strengths and limitations of specific measures.

Examples of gender sensitive indicators


  • Number of women who attended gender mainstreaming workshop.
  • Number of employment of opportunities for women allocated.


  • Level of participation during sessions
  • Degree of participations.

Gender –Based Appraisal/review

  • This is a crucial before policy and programme implementation.
  • It involves analysis of potential effects of the policy proposal from a gender perspective.
  • It can be used as a tool to review existing projects /programmes to ensure that gender –sensitive

Issues to be considered

How many and which men/women have been consulted about this policy and at what level?

How many and which women/men are included in its implementation?….are affected by the policy on the basis of workloads, time use, decision making.

Input from participants

Women In Development (WID)

  • Was an approach in the 70’s
  • Focused on productive roles of women, development of programmes for women who did not have income.
  • Over-burdened women more and threatened the relationship of man and woman

Gender and Development (GAD)

  • Incorporated man and woman


  • Is a world-wide movement fighting women rights i.e. political, social, economic.
  • Fight for women equality

Types of Feminism

  1. 1.       Liberal feminism

Believe socio legal reforms thru policies and equal opportunities for women

  1. 2.       Marxists  feminism –

The cause of the problem is not man but capitalism and believes that man is also oppressed

Eliminate class

  1. 3.       Socialism feminism
  • Oppressors
  • Capitalism
  • Patriachism
  1. 4.       Radical feminism
  • See gender/male as enemy
  • Want to create female dominated culture.
  • The target is the women but they see things differently

Gender fair

Men and women share equally in responsility, power

Gender gap

  • The gap between men/women in terms of benefits in education, employment,
  • Stereo type/exaggerated
  • Belief on image about someone else
  • Are the first step in oppression
  • Emanate from an incident
  • Is worst level dehumanizing
  • A convenient way to avoid the truth

Gender subordination

  • Oppression of opposite sex to have no control.
  • Reactions

Some approaches on gender are extremist trying to bedevil men

Intellectual deviate from addressing the gender issue and  running away from the real issues by being too abstract.


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