Promoting the awareness of Street Children Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Purposes in Dar


By Joyce Mango, Executive Director,

H4C was established to  accompany children in the streets of Dar, advocate and serve them. The project was established in the year ………….. Since its establishment H4C continues to assist homeless and vulnerable street children and adolescents including their families; who are at a high risk of exploitation and emotional abuse especially through forced commercial sex and violence in the streets.

On 16th June 2011 the Tanzanian government has admitted that it had no clear statistics of the number of children living on the streets or the kind of harm and exploitation they are exposed to. It is also noted that Some  parents  send their children to streets to beg and bring back to them what they got. In Tanzania these children are referred to as watoto wa mitaani (children of the places). Hence giving the implication of the fact that the children living and working on the streets are ignored, sconned and misunderstood by the society and the government.  In 2007, Mkombozi Center reported that 350,000 under 15 years Tanzanian children were involved in child labour at slave wage conditions and under harzadous conditions in commercial agriculture or in mining and quarry sites. Hence child labour occurs because impoverished parents allow their children to be employed and to drop out of school.  Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Singida, Morogoro, Iringa, Dodoma, Mwanza (carried out in June 2008) and Mbeya have been identified as  either having a high prevalence of street children and/or were known cities where street children originate from and/or travel through on their way to the larger cities.

Children end up in the streets because of various reasons. They may have been trafficked by Family members or they may be escaping from desperate economic circumstances including family violence too. While in the streets children face exploitations of various kinds. They may be exposed to sexual exploitation or become exploited as porters, in domestic servitude, begging or even in carrying out criminal activities such as drug peddling or robberies. Some children become exploited in prostitution including child sex tourism, street begging and vending. While women and girls are more susceptible to domestic servitude and sexual exploitation, men and boys may be recruited as soldiers, other menial jobs or join criminal gangs.

H4C works is mainly in the streets where it hopes to help in helping the children secure their rights as provided in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. These rights include 1. Right to life; nutrition, shelter and medical care. 2. Development rights including education, family and societal reintegration and lastly developing their human capital. 3. Right to protection which includes fighting all forms of abuse against children such as arbitrary arrests, physical, sexual and emotional abuse. 4. Right to participation including making children aware of their responsibilities and promoting actions  that integrate the children into the community and the society. This is also in line with reintegrating the children into their families, the society, public school system and into their culture.


Service, accompaniment and advocacy for street children


H4C works with children and young people, the homeless, both rural and urban populations and families in order to reduce the problems faced by the children in the streets.


Organizing awareness and informative campaigns on streets children human trafficking

Objectives and activities

To promote a multi stakeholder involvement to prevent child trafficking

  • Streets human trafficking awareness raising activities
  • Activities aimed at educating parents
  • Awareness activities aimed at the general public (radio, tv, traditional performances)

Promote family and societal reintegration activities amongst the children

  • Reunite street children with their family.
  • To facilitate the return to school of children.
  • To provide basic health care to street children.
  • To provide training and psychological support aimed at facilitating behavior change.
  • Guiding and educating parents through counseling especially before taking them back to home.
  • To transport children who are willing to go back their home.


Call for materials on David Kato’s life, work and legacy‏

From: Stella Nyanzi
Makerere University

Call for materials on David Kato
This is a call for materials for a biographical book on the life, work and
legacy of David Kisule Kato the deceased Ugandan human rights defender
for sexual (and other) minorities. The biography is being developed and
written by researchers in the Law, Gender and Sexuality Research Project
of the Faculty of Law at Makerere University  Kampala. We are interested in a range of materials including essays, fiction,
poetry, web blogs, art, crafts, photographs, film, documentaries,
speeches, diaries, letters and other correspondence, music, academic
publications, etc. that reflect any aspect of the life and work of David
Kato. We invite materials from family, friends, lovers, partners,
colleagues, allies, students, other human rights defenders and advocates,
social justice activists, sexual minorities, academics, clerics,
parliamentarians, journalists and anyone else with something (whether
positive or negative) to say about David Kato�s life, work and legacy.
Materials about the different commemoration activities and memorial events
held after David�s death are also welcome.
The materials will be collected alongside interviews and focus group
discussions conducted in rural and urban Uganda among those who knew David
Kato. Although the main language of the biography will be English,
relevant materials written in Luganda, Kiswahili, French, Portugese,
Spanish and any other African tongue will be translated for inclusion. The
deadline for submission is 16th December 2011. All received materials will
be duly acknowledged.
Please send material to:
Stella Nyanzi,
Law, Gender and Sexuality Research Project,
Faculty of Law,
P. O. Box 7062, Kampala � Uganda.
Email: or

Please circulate as widely as possible among your circles.

Stella Nyanzi (BA, MA, Msc., PhD),
Medical Anthropologist/ Senior Researcher,
Law, Gender and Sexuality Research Project,
Faculty of Law,
Makerere University,
P. O. Box 7062,
Kampala - Uganda.
Alternative email:
Cell: (+256) 775 301 767
skype: snyanzi

MP Quizzed on the Varsity Student’s Mysterious Death

By OLIVER MUSEMBI, Posted  Sunday, June 26 2011 at 22:02

Juja MP William Kabogo has been questioned by police officers investigating the mysterious death of a university student whose body was found dumped on a busy city highway.

Mr Kabogo was one of the guests at a party where the post-graduate journalism student was reported to have had an angry argument with a man before her death on June 17.

“I have recorded a statement with the police and you can get all the details there. I do not know where you got the report about a dark Mercedes Benz allegedly seen dropping a body,” said Mr Kabogo.

The MP said he had nothing to do with the student’s death and challenged those with information about the incident to report to police. 

“Sometimes I don’t understand you people (media)… you seem to have more information than we have, give it to the police,” he told the Nation by phone.

The party attended by the MP was held at Wasini Luxury Homes on Church Road — off Waiyaki Way, Nairobi — the night before Ms Mercy Keino was found dead after allegedly quarrelling with a man.

Ms Keino, 25, was found dead on Waiyaki Way her body in a terrible state, having been run over by vehicles.

Police are reported to be linking two reports, one about the discovery of the body on the road and another by a witness who claimed to have seen a body being thrown out of a Mercedez Benz on Waiyaki Way.

Detectives at Parklands police station said the MP told them he had met Ms Keino at the party for the first time.

And Gigiri police boss Josek Nansio said they had mounted a manhunt for the owner of the dark Mercedes Benz mentioned by the witness who had called the police. The car had been officially identified.

“We got his particulars of the motorist just yesterday (Saturday). He never came to police in the first place and so we have to look for him,” he said.

Police had not found him by the time of going to press last evening.

Mr Nansio said until then, his detectives could not be fully sure they were investigating murder.

A source who spoke to the witnesses said an MP arrived at the party shortly after midnight.

Mercy had arrived with her friend earlier in the evening.

He said the host served juice, and the partying went on well until someone in the group produced an alcoholic drink, described by the source as “hard stuff”, possibly a description of spirits, and moved round the room pouring into glasses.

At this point, Ms Keino is reported to have protested, saying her faith did not allow her to be in such a gathering.

She was a staunch follower of Seventh Day Adventist Church.

The source said Ms Keino walked out of the house in protest and was followed and dragged back by several well-built men.
A scuffle ensued and Ms Keino is reported to have broken glasses as the men struggled to restrain her.

She is reported to have walked out a second time with the men in pursuit. Her body was found at around 4.15 am, according to a police report. An initial report by a pathologist indicated her legs were broken, and the upper body disfigured, probably after she was ran over by vehicles.

Female University Student found Dead in Suspect Circumstances

Mercy Keino

Mercy Keino the late university student.


Posted  Saturday, June 25 2011 at 22:30

Police have interrogated an MP from Central Kenya and his two bodyguards over the mysterious death of a university student in Nairobi after a violent altercation.

Mercy Chepkosgei Keino’s promising future was cut short in the upmarket Westlands area of Nairobi where she had attended a private party on Friday June 17, 2011. The party ended prematurely for her after a disagreement with the MP.

Ms Keino had planned to complete a master’s degree in communications at the University of Nairobi School of Journalism and marry her fiancé Ronny Kemboi, an employee of the Kenya Revenue Authority, in December.

But her dreams were shattered after disagreements with the MP at an apartment complex on Church Road to which she had been invited by friends.

Accounts given to the police in witness statements indicate that Ms Keino left the party after a heated exchange with the flamboyant MP, sources familiar with the investigations told the Sunday Nation.

Gigiri police boss Joseck Nasio confirmed that the MP had recorded a statement with the CID at Parklands Police Station.

In the statement, the MP admitted he was at the party where Ms Keino allegedly got intoxicated and caused chaos, and they quarrelled before his guards intervened.

The accounts recorded by the police show that Ms Keino was escorted out of the plush apartment complex by the MP’s bodyguards. When she stepped outside, the student sat on the stairs at the entrance to the complex.

When the night guard asked the bodyguards what was going on he was informed that the woman was waiting for a taxi. But he did not see any taxi arrive and Ms Keino left on foot with the bodyguards, walking towards Waiyaki Way.

Her friends at the party told the police they did not know what had happened to Ms Keino until the following day in the afternoon.

By then, Ms Keino was hours dead. Her body was recovered in the wee hours of Saturday on Waiyaki Way where, police say, several motorists had run over it.

Police initially thought the death had been caused by a hit-and-run driver but were taken aback when they did not see much blood at the scene. It was not clear where Ms Keino was coming from at that time of the night.

Police later linked the death with a separate report filed by a witness who had reported seeing occupants of a dark Mercedes Benz car drop off a body on the highway.

On Saturday, police confirmed that some witnesses had given them details of the vehicle, and they had established the name of the registered owner but were yet to talk to him.

A medical student at the University of Nairobi who was at the party told the police that she saw Ms Keino running towards Waiyaki Way followed by the MP’s guards but only learnt of her death the following day at around 1 p.m.

Ms Keino’s family and Belgut MP Charles Keter have called for through investigations into her death. At the funeral in Belgut on Friday, her parents urged the police to investigate the death conclusively.

During an emotional send-off at her home, her father, Mr Joseph Keino, told mourners that the death of his first-born daughter was shrouded in mystery.

“We are not satisfied with the story we are being told about the death of child … we urge the police to conduct further investigations to unearth what really happened,” he told the mourners.

The father said his daughter last talked to him about her wedding preparations. They also discussed the progress of her graduate studies.

“She had introduced me to Ronny, and I gave her my blessings to marry him. I saw that the young man was a good man,” he said in a voice full of emotion. At the University of Nairobi Ms Keino was known as social and principled person.

According to a classmate who spoke to theSunday Nation on Saturday, her engagement and impending wedding were known by friends and classmates in campus. “When she was not with her family, she would be with her boyfriend,” the classmate said.

Mr Keter, the local MP, urged the police to conclude investigations into grey areas touching on the death but said he was so far satisfied with the pace of investigations.

“So far the police, especially the Criminal Investigations Department in Gigiri, have been cooperative and helpful, but we still urge them to investigate the remaining areas of this tragic incident,” he said.

The legislator said that police should establish how Ms Keino left the apartment and who accompanied her because the body was found about three kilometres away from the party venue.

“The police should unearth how the body could be found so far away from where the deceased and her friends were having their outing,” he said.
He was optimistic that the truth would be uncovered soon.

Azaria Soi, a relative of Ms Keino, said the family was suspicious about the circumstances surrounding the death and urged “deeper investigations”.

He questioned why the friends who went out with the deceased that night waited 12 hours before reporting her disappearance to the police.

Never reported

“We wonder why her friend or friends, who they went out with together, never reported to the police until after 12 hours had elapsed. The whole story is fishy,” Mr Soi said.

Ms Keino’s death announcement on Wednesday indicated that she died on the morning of Saturday, June 18, 2011 in a “suspicious tragic road accident” on Waiyaki Way, Nairobi.

Mr Kemboi, to whom she became engaged on April 25, vowed to get to the bottom of the death mystery. He told the mourners that they had “planned our future, but God had other plans. But I will look for answers to the death of Mercy.”

Mrs Winnie Keter said the death needed further investigation. “There are many grey areas in the death of Mercy which we urge the police to investigate fully,” she said.

The gathering was told that doctors had to reconstruct her face, which was badly mutilated when her body was run over.

Pray for Peace in the Nuba


KADUGLI, June 24, 2011 (CISA) – Issue 37

The Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Kadugli, in Sudan is calling for a church-wide prayer and fasting on June 26, 2011 to end the Nuba genocide and for peace in Sudan. “On behalf of my people in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan we are asking all Sudanese Christians wherever they are, and the Church throughout the world to join with us in a day of prayer and fasting on June 26, 2011,” Bishop Andudu Adam Elnail said in a press statement sent to CISA. Bishop Elnail further said, “Once again we are facing the nightmare of genocide of our people in a final attempt to erase our culture and society from the face of the earth. It is not a war between armies that is being fought in our land, but the utter destruction of our way of life and our history, as demonstrated by the genocide of our neighbours and relatives in Darfur. This is a war of domination and eradication; it is a war of terror by the government of Sudan against their people.” “As we approach the July 9 day of independence for the New South Sudan, President Bashir has declared for all the world to hear that Sharia will be the law of the land for the North, refusing to recognize the legitimate presence of the Christian minority,” the bishop stated. He expressed that this declaration is a determination to end the remembrance of Christian heritage in Sudan that dates back two thousand years to the story of the Ethiopian eunuch (who was from modern day Sudan). Meanwhile families are fleeing from their homes in the only oil-rich state that will still belong to the North in just over two weeks, as attacks in the region are being decried as ethnic cleansing. From one village on Wednesday, June 22, a woman was killed and two children injured by bombs, as well as other casualties taken for medical care. Another report spoke of a mother and three children killed when their home was bombed. Rape cases in the Nuba Mountains are on the increase. The Nuba people are an ethnic minority, a mix of Muslims and Christians, unlike the rest of the north, which is overwhelmingly Muslim. Most of the Nuba tribesmen sided with the South during the long civil war. As they now come under attack again, rights agencies are recalling how the Nuba already suffered systematic attacks in the 1990s.

Papers on THB Sought for XVIth World Economics Congress

Papers sought for a panel at the XVIth World Economic History Congress

Location: South Africa
Call for Papers Date: 2011-07-07 (in 11 days)
Date Submitted: 2011-06-18
Announcement ID: 185993


Trafficking in human beings, esp. trafficking in women as a business and as a market; since the 19th century

Papers sought for a panel at the XVIth World Economic History Congress July 2012 at Stellenbosch, South Africa Trafficking in human beings as a business

This section shall analyse the development of trafficking in human beings (THB) – and especially trafficking in women – with the methodical and theoretical approaches of social, economic and business history from the 19th century until the present. The phenomenon of human trafficking as defined by the UN Trafficking Protocol of 2000 relates to 19th century slavery and is considered to be a form of modern day slavery or some sort of coolie system. It is important to note that in the 19th and early 20th century, practices nowadays considered as human trafficking were referred to as “White Slavery“, Slavery and “Mädchenhandel“. THB was furthermore primarily seen as feeding into the sex industry. Forced labour, domestic servitude, and forced begging, among other forms of human trafficking recognized by todays internationally agreed upon definition, where not in the focus then. For the past 20 years trafficking has been subject of political debates, programs and policies at several national and international levels. It became one of the hottest issues in the context of fighting organized crime and thus an issue of intense international police co-operation and high engagement of international organizations. Despite this new attention, trafficking in women is not „the new face of migration“ (Boidi 2003), but trafficking and national and international attempts to stop this crime accompany migration since the mid-1800s. The problem became part of the political agenda during two phases of accelerated economic globalization and technical modernization – between the 1880s and 1930s, and after the collapse of state socialism in 1989. As trafficking in most of the cases takes place across borders, international co-operation characterizes the fight against the crime. Several international conventions dealing with the problem have been passed in the last 140 years – be it by the League of Nations, the UN, the EU, the Council of Europe or conventions between states.

Finding the correct words for describing this crime remains a persistent challenge in combating human trafficking. Most formulations used to describe human trafficking focus on the trade or buying and selling of people. Other formulations refer to something closer to “smuggling” which relates specifically to movement across borders; although human trafficking can also happen within a country and does not necessarily entail cross-border movement. THB is a matter of (organized) economic crime, illegal migration as well as an issue of exploitation of forced labor in migration processes and in the context of an international and gendered division of labor.

Nevertheless THB was mainly discussed under the aspect of human rights and especially women rights and a variety of moral aspects. Studies which focus on THB as a problem of social, economic or business history are rare. With this section we want to promote analyzing THB as a subject of social, economic and business history. THB works like a market. It is obvious that THB can be understood as a market structure: The victims are bought, sold, traded and used. It is debatable whether the victims are treated like commodities or as workers on a demand market where the providers of manpower are in an extremely weak position: A growing demand for (cheap) labour, sexual services and particularly for women for (forced) marriages, as well as economic and demographic disparities has stimulated trafficking of human beings throughout time. In terms of demand, like demand in all markets, is a socially, culturally and historically determined matter and a social and political construct. The perpetrators of human trafficking force individuals to work in conditions of forced labour, servitude, or debt bondage; this privation of freedom and poor living conditions is thus a severe violation of human rights. Efforts to combat THB have mostly been geared toward victim support and prevention as a response to the severe harm to victims, but little has been done to diminish the profitability of the business, which is why it is valuable to look at how this business has developed over time. Trafficking in human beings still continues to be a very profitable business in which traffickers face relatively small risks. For example, prosecutions remain very low in comparison to the scope of the problem. There are only around 4,000 trafficking convictions worldwide each year. Higher prosecutions would serve as a preventive measure by increasing the risk to human traffickers which in turn should reduce profits.

Between the 1880s and 1930s as well as after 1989 a variety of different actors has been involved in implementing international agreements and in governing the problem at national and sub-national levels: national, regional and communal governments, the judiciary, the police, and voluntary associations. Therefore it would be useful to integrate the markets for victims support into our debate.

Papers can deal with THB or women trafficking as market structures Organizational structure, business practices of the traffickers Networks or firms?
Trafficking as economic crime
Social history of the victims (economic, family, regional, social, educational background etc.)
THB as phenomena of industrialization and globalization
Economics of victims support
Correlation between anti-prostitution, anti-trafficking and anti-modernism resp. anti-liberalism campaigns
Anti-trafficking activities as an arena of anti-capitalism
Theoretical and methodological problems (Gendered economic history; problem of sources etc.)

Please send your proposal (about 5.000 signs) with a short cv (not more than 2.500 signs) Not later than July, 3, 2011 to:

a.o. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jürgen Nautz
Dep. Of Economics
University of Vienna
Hohenstaufengasse 9
A-1010 Vienna

a.o. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jürgen Nautz
Dep. Of Economics
University of Vienna
Hohenstaufengasse 9
A-1010 Vienna

KARDS Training on Micro Finance and Micro Enterprise Development

KARDS Development Consultants will commence a training on Micro Finance and Micro Enterprise Development (MF&MED)
Program Duration
5 Days, Mon. 4, July 2011 – Friday 8, July 2011 (8.30am – 4.00pm)
Shalom House, St. Daniel Comboni Rd., Off Ngong’ Rd.
Program Output
This program aim to enhance the participants ability to develop effective interventions and promotional strategies for the small micro enterprise sectors. Based on the premise that MFIs have to be sustainable for long term impact, and that sound accounting principles are one of the pillars of financial well being of micro finance.
Training Program Outline
  •  Overview of micro finance and its evolution
  • The role of MFI’s as an essential tool in promoting SME’s
  • Feasibility study for micro finance
  •  Initiating and designing micro finance programs
  • Portfolio management.
  •  Experiences in developing micro finance institutions
  • Impact assessment
  • Promotion and development of micro enterprise
  • Institutional sustainability and operational efficiency
  • Financial sustainability.
  • Challenges in the micro finance sector; the micro finance act
  • The Role of ICT in micro finance
  • Gender mainstreaming in entrepreneurial development
A fee of Ksh. 9,500 is charged per participant, this is inclusive of professional fee, meals and certificates.
Accommodation can only be pre-arranged on timely request.
About us
KARDS Development Consultants is a community based consultancy inaugurated in the year 2002 and is geared towards the socio economic empowerment of the humble and the lowly in Africa. It embraces its mission of empowerment through provision of training, applied research and consultancy services.
Organization  Address
P.O. Box 16139 00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Working Hours
8am – 5pm, Mon. – Frid.
9am – 1pm Saturday
Tel. Nos. (+254) (20) 3877553, 0720 812 638, 0736 935 387

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