The HIV/AIDS Community Caregivers of Riruta Location, Nairobi

Richard Ochanda

HIV/AIDS Intervention addressed by 21% of Riruta’s 524 Community service organizations made up of societies, NGOs, self helps, FBOs etc. HIV/AIDS Intervention includes prevention, awareness, home based care for the sick, TB awareness, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), prevention of mother to child infection and lastly the economic empowerment of the HIV/AIDS patients. Given the fact that HIV/AIDS has proved to be a menace to the local communities the CBOs are addressing various of its components. They do this with very little resources and skills.  The adult HIV/AIDS prevalence was 7.1 and it rose to 8.1 in 2008 and 10% in 2009. There were 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS in 2003, in 2008 this figure shot to 2 million. The deaths resulting from HIV/AIDS per year amounted to 150,000 people in 2003 while in 2008 they amounted to 130,000 (UNAIDS, 2003 and 2008; and KANCO 2009).

Some of the notable CBOs working in this area include

Riruta Health Programme (RHP) – Kabiria

Mutarakwa Women group- Ngando

By Faith Self Help Group, Riruta

Wanyee Rd Self Help Group, Ngando

The Salvation Group Dagoretti, Dagoretti

Dagoretti Interrated Children’s communty project, Ngando

All Western Welfare Ass.(AWWA), Riruta

Sesenia Group for the Orphans, Ngando

Community Empowerment Organisation (CEO), Riruta

Ngando Charity for Orphaned Children, Ngando

Christine Foundation, Ngando

Ngina Rd.Getinge Youth Group, Riruta

S.P.C Shalomers Group, Ndurarua

Work for Food Community Based Organisation, Riruta

Riruta Imlementation Management Committee(RIMC), Riruta

Riruta Jilinde Self Help Group, Riruta

Kianda Ndurarua Women Group, Riruta

Bidii Youth Group, Riruta

Zaburi Self Help Group, Riruta

True Gunners Youth Club, Riruta

Kwetu Youth Group, Riruta

Lenana Mapambano Group, Lenana

Sons of King Jesus Self Help Group, Riruta East

Badiz Haven Youth Group, Riruta

Karika Asas and HIV/AIDs project, Kawangware near KREP

Organisation of Africa Instituted Churches, Kawangware

Liverpool VCT Care and Treatment, Riruta

Full Gospel Churches of Kenya Street Children Project, Riruta

Deserving Community Ministry(DCM), Dagoretti

Nyumbani The Children of God Relief Institution, Riruta

Riruta Health Trust (RHT), Riruta

Friends of the Needy Children, Riruta

Tataken Self Help Group, Ngando

Wanyee Youth Community Dev’t Initiative, Ngando

Kiungani-Karara Self Help Group, Riruta

Jeremi Youth Group, Riruta

Riruta Youth Against Drugs and HIV/AIDs, Riruta

Tulenge Juu Initiative, Riruta

Ushirikiano Group, Riruta

Universal Children Centre, Riruta

Inuka Uangaze, Riruta

Kamewosu Group, Riruta

Riruta Post-TB Test Club, Riruta

Rehoboth Self Help Group, Riruta

Mtakatifu Mikail SHG, Riruta

Kaumara Women SHG, Riruta

Kivuli Parents SHG, Kabiria

Eneza Vitendo Africana (EVA), Kabiria and Satelite

Golden Youth Group, Riruta

Ngando Garden of Hope HBC, Riruta

Stemi Junior School, Riruta

Ngotho Rd.Muteithania Women Group, Riruta

Amukeni Women’s Group, Kabiria

Nairobi Saved Women Fellowship, Riruta

Precious Women Empowerment, Riruta

Ngina Rd Welfare Association, Riruta

Kamueli Women Group, Riruta

Nest Community Centre(NC), Location not reported

Pressure Women Group, Location not reported

HIV/AIDs Management and Resource Centre, Riruta

Nairobi Youth Iniative (NAYI), Riruta

Watoto wa Makarios Sports Initiative Program, Kabiria

Hope and Mercy Centre, Riruta

Youth Alliance for Change and Development, Riruta

Riruta Rhino Education Centre, Riruta

Kwiheana Niwira SHG, location not reported

Da- West Youth Resource Centre, Location not reported

DC RC Beneficiaries Youth Group, Ngando

Yawezekana Ministry of PCEA, Riruta

Wasaw Community Based Organization, Riruta

Ndwaru Integrated SHG, Riruta

Naivasha Orphans Rescue, location not reported

Mombasa SHG, Riruta

Root Tracers, Riruta

Dagoretti Fans Welfare Organization, Dagoretti

Satelite Chunga Maisha SHG, Satelite

Eutychus Educational Centre, Riruta

Fore Front Kenya, Riruta

Jigahidi Muciano SHG, Riruta

Upendo Family Help Project,  Ngando

Fadhili Helpers, Ngando

Witikio Njeru Women Community Based Organisation, Riruta

Githembe Children Feeding Program, Githembe

Community Aids Educators, Lenana

Kawafiki Youth Group, Riruta

Centre for Social- Medical Education Care Research (CESMECARE), Ngando and Kimbo

Ngurumo Women Empowerment Community Organisation, Riruta

Hod-Hope Out of Despair Initiative, Satelite

Other Sheep Kenya, East


The Sub Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS Burden is Just Too Painful

We hereby present the grim statistics of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa. These numbers are just a conservative estimate. We must get worried, a continent and its people are becoming extinct.

More please visit here

Country People living with HIV/AIDS Adult (15-49) rate % Women with HIV/AIDS Children with HIV/AIDS AIDS deaths Orphans
due to AIDS
Angola 190,000 2.1 110,000 17,000 11,000 50,000
Benin 64,000 1.2 37,000 5,400 3,300 29,000
Botswana 300,000 23.9 170,000 15,000 11,000 95,000
Burkina Faso 130,000 1.6 61,000 10,000 9,200 100,000
Burundi 110,000 2.0 53,000 15,000 11,000 120,000
Cameroon 540,000 5.1 300,000 45,000 39,000 300,000
Central African Republic 160,000 6.3 91,000 14,000 11,000 72,000
Chad 200,000 3.5 110,000 19,000 14,000 85,000
Comoros <200 <0.1 <100 <100 <100 <100
Congo 120,000 3.5 43,000 6,600 6,400 69,000
Côte d’Ivoire 480,000 3.9 250,000 52,000 38,000 420,000
Dem. Republic of Congo 400,000-
Djibouti 16,000 3.1 8,700 1,100 1,100 5,200
Equatorial Guinea 11,000 3.4 5,900 <1,000 <1,000 4,800
Eritrea 38,000 1.3 21,000 3,100 2,600 18,000
Ethiopia 980,000 2.1 530,000 92,000 67,000 650,000
Gabon 49,000 5.9 27,000 2,300 2,300 18,000
Gambia 8,200 0.9 4,500 <1,000 <1,000 2,700
Ghana 260,000 1.9 150,000 17,000 21,000 160,000
Guinea 87,000 1.6 48,000 6,300 4,500 25,000
Guinea-Bissau 16,000 1.8 8,700 1,500 1,100 6,200
Kenya 1,500,000-
Lesotho 270,000 23.2 150,000 12,000 18,000 110,000
Liberia 35,000 1.7 19,000 3,100 2,300 15,000
Madagascar 14,000 0.1 3,400 <500 <1,000 3,400
Malawi 930,000 11.9 490,000 91,000 68,000 560,000
Mali 100,000 1.5 56,000 9,400 5,800 44,000
Mauritania 14,000 0.8 3,900 <500 <1,000 3,000
Mauritius 13,000 1.7 3,800 <100 <1,000 <500
Mozambique 1,500,000 12.5 810,000 100,000 81,000 400,000
Namibia 200,000 15.3 110,000 14,000 5,100 66,000
Niger 60,000 0.8 17,000 3,200 4,000 25,000
Nigeria 2,600,000 3.1 1,400,000 220,000 170,000 1,200,000
Rwanda 150,000 2.8 78,000 19,000 7,800 220,000
Senegal 67,000 1.0 38,000 3,100 1,800 8,400
Sierra Leone 55,000 1.7 30,000 4,000 3,300 16,000
Somalia 24,000 0.5 6,700 <1,000 1,600 8,800
South Africa 5,700,000 18.1 3,200,000 280,000 350,000 1,400,000
Swaziland 190,000 26.1 100,000 15,000 10,000 56,000
Togo 130,000 3.3 69,000 10,000 9,100 68,000
Uganda 1,000,000 6.7 520,000 110,000 91,000 1,000,000
United Rep. Of Tanzania 940,000 5.4 480,000 130,000 77,000 1,200,000
Zambia 1,100,000 15.2 560,000 95,000 56,000 600,000
Zimbabwe 1,300,000 15.3 680,000 120,000 140,000 1,000,000
Total sub-Saharan Africa 22,000,000 5.0 12,000,000 1,800,000 1,500,000 11,600,000


Adults in this page are defined as men and women aged over 15, unless specified otherwise.

Children are defined as people under the age of 15, whilst orphans are people aged under 18 who have lost one or both parents to AIDS.


By Millicent Agutu

Started on 1st December 1988, World AIDS Day is about raising money, increasing awareness, fighting prejudice and improving education. The World AIDS Day theme for 2010 is ‘Universal Access and Human Rights’. World AIDS Day is important for reminding people that HIV has not gone away, and that there are many things still to be done.

According to UNAIDS estimates, there are now 33.3 million people living with HIV, including 2.5 million children. During 2009 some 2.6 million people became newly infected with the virus and an estimated 1.8 million people died from AIDS.1

The vast majority of people with HIV and AIDS live in lower- and middle-income countries. But HIV today is a threat to men, women and children on all continents around the world.

Draft National Policy on Human Rights, 2010 – A new dawn for Kenya

Find the original article here

Click here to learn about human rights

The Government of Kenya (GoK) through the Ministry of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs and the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNHR) have produced a draft National Policy on Human Rights, 2010 which will be formulated as a Sessional Paper. The Policy’s vision is to ensure that Kenya becomes a more human rights respecting state. This can only be achievable if human rights issues are incorporated into development planning, implementation and evaluation in all government sectors.

The following is a summary of what outcomes the document is expected to have: –

  1. Establishment and empowerment of effective national or issue-specific institutions that deal with human rights;
  2. Enhanced awareness of the human rights standards and mechanisms which will enable everyone including the public servants, to understand how human rights impact on service delivery;
  3. Improved level of informed ratifications of international human rights treaties, domestication and effective observance by the government of its obligations;
  4. Better linkages between human rights, planning and development (an important aspect for the realization of Vision 2030);
  5. Focus on economic, social and cultural rights leading to improved quality of life, particularly among the marginalized and vulnerable groups (towards to achievement of MDGs); and
  6. Provide a road map towards the realization of human rights respecting state.

The document is thus based on the recognition that Kenya requires a comprehensive framework to protect and promote the realization of humans  rights for all Kenyans. While formulating the document, a multi-sectoral approach was taken to ensure that the document was comprehensive and inclusive. The stakeholders consulted included th public through forums held in different parts of the country, the private sector, trade unions, civil society organisations (CSO), and government ministries. From this consultative process the following objectives for the policy were identified: –

  1. To promote the human rights based approach in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in all sectors in the country (government -private, formal-informal, urban-rural, etc);
  2. To mainstream human rights in public policy development and resource allocation;
  3. to strengthen the capacity of all state and non-state actors to provide for and ensure the fulfillment and enjoyment of human rights for all.

The consultations also came up with areas of interventions which would be addressed by the policy to ensure that each Kenyan enjoyed maximum human rights. These to me were well thought of and are sufficient, though I welcome any views that one would add or subtract about the thematic areas. These include the following topics/areas: –

  1. Insecurity and crime;
  2. Lack of access to justice and respect for the rule of law;
  3. Discrimination against women;
  4. Environmental degradation;
  5. Food insecurity;
  6. Proliferation of informal settlements;
  7. Abuse of children’s rights;
  8. Political violence and negative ethnicity;
  9. Inadequate health care services;
  10. Limited access to services by persons with disability;
  11. Low quality and relevance of education;
  12. Disparities in land ownership;
  13. Ineffective governance;
  14. Youth employment;
  15. Corruption;
  16. Internal displacement of persons;
  17. Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation;
  18. Human wildlife conflict; and
  19. Marginalized and minority groups.
In my opinion the time is rife for Kenya to lead the way in promoting and ensuring the adherence of human rights on a day-to-day basis. If this policy is passed, the country to me would have scored not only with the international community but most importantly with its own citizen. This will ensure that historic human rights injustices (political instigated harassment/violence, unequal resource allocation, development disparities, corruption,  among others) are not repeated. So we Kenyans should go through the policy and any clarifications may be addressed in writing to:
The Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional  Affairs,
P.O. Box 56057-00200,
Nairobi, Kenya.
For more information please visit their website on

Mombasa Symposium on “Management of Counter Human trafficking Initiatives in East Africa”

October 19th, 2010 § 1 Comment

In East Africa there are scary media reports on the widening scope of Trafficking In Persons (TIP). The most vulnerable people being women, children and recently albinos who are exploited for work, sex, or organs extraction. There are also scary enslavement ordeals the people from East Africa undergo in distant countries.

Rerum Novarum in 19th Century taught very clearly that

“… It is shameful and inhuman to use men (including women and children) as worthless things..”(31).

Lying on his stomach, the victim’s hands and legs are tied to stakes while he is being whipped by the overseer

Koinonia Advisory Research and Development Service (KARDS) from Nairobi in collaboration with Trace Kenya from Mombasa will be hosting a training symposium on “Management of Counter Human trafficking Initiatives and Trafficking in Persons Awareness in East Africa” in Mombasa,

at the Career Training and Development Center adjacent to Trace Kenya Offices. Date: 18th and 19th November 2010.

Keep visiting this blog for the venue of  Dar es Salaam symposium on 13th to 17th December 2010.

The main aim of the training symposiums will be to explore the trafficking in persons problem in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA) within the East African Countries. Participants will be taken through a deeper analysis of the existing legal instruments and the practise of ancient and modern slavery. Lastly the potential of CBOs, FBOs and NGOs in participating to counter human trafficking amongst the grassroots will be explored.
Topics to be discussed:

1.The challenge of the Principle of the Common Good in the light of  Human Trafficking
2.The Human Rights Based Approach in East Africa and its Application to Human Trafficking
3. Assessment of Tanzanian and Kenyan Anti Trafficking Legal Instruments

4. The NGOs and Civil Society as actors in the Promotion of enhanced Capacity to Counter TIP

5. The CBOs and FBOs as grassroots actors with greater capability to raise awareness and promoting basic victim assistance
6. Networking to promote capacity amongst the actors working to counter trafficking in persons
7. Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of counter human trafficking initiatives within Tanzania and Kenya in the last three years (2008-2010)

The training will be very beneficial to faith based organizations, law enforcement officials, women’s groups, child welfare organizations’ officials and other advocacy organizations that deal with victims of exploitation. Former victims of trafficking would also find this seminar quite beneficial to them too.

Participants will be requested to make a contribution of Kshs 2500 the  meals and administrative costs. Those having a problem to raise the money should not hesitate to contact us. Certificates of participation in the seminar will be provided.

Kindly contact KARDS Email:; Tel: +254 (20) 3877553, +254 720 812 638 or +254 736 935 387  to reserve a space or for more information.



Press Statement Released at the end of Anti TIP Symposium in Shalom House, Nairobi

12th November 2010: Shalom House, Nairobi

We, associations of faith orientation, civil society organizations and community based  organizations working against human trafficking met for a weeklong symposium on “the management of counter human trafficking projects in the perspective of human rights based approach (HBRA) in East Africa”  at Shalom house, Nairobi, Kenya from 8th to the 12th of November 2010.  In the symposium we discussed the East African laws related to counter trafficking in persons, child trafficking, prostitution and commercial sex work. We also looked at the role that religion, corruption, culture, ICT and societal attitude plays to either aggravate or ameliorate the current situation and the role that faith, government, NGOs, grassroots associations and individuals could play to combat human trafficking.

We noted with satisfaction the role played by the East African governments in addressing the problem of human trafficking. Tanzania and Uganda passed laws against trafficking in persons in 2008 while Kenya passed a law to this effect in October this year (2010). The 2009 US  Report on Trafficking in persons reported that Rwanda is also making a progress towards legislation.  Laws play a positive framework in criminalizing human trafficking, and providing legal structures to assist trafficked victims. They do not only help in prevention but also in designing educational programs for the society. It is however prudent to recognize that even the most ambitious laws and an effective system will require ample time, cooperation and resources (human and financial) in order to be effectively implemented.  We also note with positive appreciation cross border and cross country collaborations amongst the East African authorities which have helped in easing the victims pain and in repatriation. We recommend that this regional collaboration should be increased amongst our governments. Faith based organizations and civil associations should also promote collaboration at a regional level too. The East African media has really played a great role in highlighting this problem in our society. The media should continue doing more in educating the society about this malaise.

The East African countries that had enacted the counter human trafficking laws for a year or more faced a number of challenges despite the fact that they had carried capacity building programs to build the appropriate knowhow in addressing this problem at home. Unfortunately in these countries the civil society and faith organizations were not involved in the capacity building programs. It is important that this anomaly is addressed in the future in all the countries of Eastern Africa. Media reports indicate poor inter-ministerial coordination and lack of understanding what constitutes human trafficking amongst public officials. This lack of knowledge of the counter trafficking in persons (CTIP) laws amongst the public officials in essence means that they are unfamiliar of their responsibility in accordance with provisions of the law. Other reports indicate that the ministries involved in CTIP activities failed to communicate or collaborate with each other, this was aggravated by the fact that they did not have any budgetary allocations to combat the human trafficking crime.  There are also issues of cross border trafficking of children, women, men and recent special cases of albinos who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, domestic work, labor and organs. All victims of trafficking are usually treated horribly and at the end being dismissed from their work places without being paid. All countries of East Africa do act as sources and destinations for victims from East Africa and other continents of the world. Horrible stories of pain and deaths undergone by the victims of trafficking in other continents have been severally related in the media calling the East African governments to action.

Despite the challenges however, governments have been able to conclude a few cases successfully and convict the culprits. This convictions however will scantily solve the problem which has some cultural acceptance and is seen as normal practice.  Hence the call to go beyond the minimal requirements of the law in providing education. In East Africa there are beliefs in witch craft where parts of the human body are required for rituals, some section of the society such as the albinos are hence endangered. Hence the incidences of internal, in country trafficking are much more higher than those of international trafficking and are usually facilitated by family members, friends and relatives with offers of education or employment in urban areas.

The use of young girls with some of them being as young as seven years for forced domestic labour is quite rampant in our East African societies. It is normal to come across cases of children whose futures have been blighted through suffering, abuse and exploitation at the hands of relatives and “well wishers” who are supposed to take care of them; but who have turned them to slaves. How could such people feel if such was their own child or young sister?  Our children and our women are our future. We must work together towards protecting them from abuse and from harm. It seems like we are waging a war against our own children and women and doing everything to destroy their psychological development, self esteem and their future.

We need to work hard to change such horrible practices and maledictions, raise awareness of the consequences of abuse on children so that people can see that it is not just right. For  East Africa to survive and develop, we all have a responsibility to work towards the change of this negative practice.  Everyone has a role to play in safeguarding the welfare of children, women and all people: pastors, imams, civil servants, politicians, workers, parents, uncles, aunties, sisters and brothers or simply every one.

From our reflections above therefore we make a few conclusions as follow:

The trade in human persons constitutes a shocking offense against human dignity and a grave violation of fundamental human rights. Such situations are an affront to fundamental values which are shared by all cultures and peoples, values rooted in the very nature of the human person.

Human trafficking emanates from poverty and lack of better opportunities for self development. Women are hence forced to prostitution and minors to work or other unknown forms of exploitation. Poverty does contribute to the destruction of family ties, and leads to the destabilization of communities and displacement of peoples. Human enslavement therefore is a tool used by evil opportunists in order to gain economically from the poor or to advance their inhuman hedonistic agendas. A society not able to take care of its people is not at peace with itself and hence requires reconciliation with itself through working for better socio-economic conditions for its people.

The human rights based approach should be adopted as a framework to combat human trafficking most effectively. The human rights framework is holistic and embodies not only the prevention, protection, prosecution but also a rehabilitative and re-integration component that takes care of the psycho social and emotional needs of the victims of human trafficking. We should avoid a situation where laws are prioritized at the expense of the human dignity of the victims.

There is a need to develop models for interviewing undocumented (illegal) immigrants to ensure that appropriate questions are asked to ascertain if they have been trafficked. This will ensure that trafficked victims are able to access assistance and are not further victimized.

While laws have been made criminalizing human trafficking and establishing legal structures of victim assistance, handling trafficked victims still remains a complex task. There are very few if any proper physical structures in place hence in the East African countries a victim would be housed in police cell making her a custodial victim. Just finding appropriate governmental structures for assistance is still a challenge especially to the NGO’s that deal with trafficked victims on a day today basis. There is hence need for guidelines on procedures on treatment of the trafficked by law enforcement officials dealing with trafficked people on a day today basis. Infact there is need for a specialized unit trained on issues of trafficking within the security enforcement agents.

East African states, inter governmental organizations, NGO’s and FBO’s and grassroots organizations should raise awareness and sensitize the society  in general about the violation of human rights that trafficked persons experience. They should also pay particular attention to the effect of their treatment by the governments. Their role should therefore be to serve, accompany and advocate for the victims.

Lastly we appeal to all people of goodwill that when they see a situation of an exploitation or abuse, they should not keep quiet because that woman or child’s life depends on them. In a number of cases where women and children ended up being murdered or seriously hurt, there were people who knew what was going on and did nothing. It is important not to burden your heart and conscience for having failed to help someone who really needed your help. Always remember that the glory of God is a woman, child and man fully alive!  Our Lord reminds us that whatsoever you do to the least of my sisters and brothers that you do unto me.

Sincerely yours,

Consolation East Africa (CEA)


Volunteers International Community Development Africa (VICDA)

Koinonia Advisory Research and Development Service (KARDS)

Life Bloom Services International (LBSI)

Little Bees Project

Human Assistance Awareness Research on Trafficking (HAART)

Employment and Enterprise Program (EEP)

Riruta Environmental Group (REG)

Kenya Passes a New Law for Counter Trafficking in Persons

CISA: Issue No. 108 Friday, October 29, 2010

The Government of Kenya has signed into law new legislation to crack down on human traffickers and offer protection to trafficking victims in Kenya.

The law which was signed by President Mwai Kibaki last week slaps a 30 year jail term or a hefty fine of 30 million Kenyan Shillings (USD 370,000) on convicted traffickers, sending a stern warning to individuals who engage in this illegal trade.

IOM provided technical and financial assistance in drafting the new law as part of the “Counter-trafficking through Capacity Building, Awareness Raising and Assistance to Victims Programme” funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Kenya.

Other partners who contributed to the bill include the Children’s Foundation the CRADLE, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Attorney General’s Office, Children’s Department in the Ministry of Gender, the Law Reform Commission, the Federation of Women Lawyers of Kenya (FIDA-K) and the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR).

“This legislation represents a significant new tool for Kenya in counter-trafficking law enforcement” says IOM’s counter trafficking expert Tal Raviv.

Although previous legislation under the 2001 Children’s Act and 2006 Sexual Offences Act addressed the issue of trafficking, neither law comprehensively defines the criminal nature of human trafficking as stipulated in the UN Palermo Protocol, signed by Kenya in 2005.

Under the new law, trafficking in persons is legally defined and recognized for the first time, as a distinct crime in Kenya. National counter trafficking efforts have until now been focused on prevention and protection of victims with limited prosecution of traffickers within the existing legal framework.

“We hope that the new Counter Trafficking in Persons Act will create momentum to expand counter-trafficking initiatives in accordance with the 2008-2013 National Plan of Action (NPA)” notes Tal Raviv. The Action Plan includes activities such as supporting school retention rates as a preventive measure, conducting information outreach to targeted populations, and reducing vulnerability by supporting socio-economic development and empowerment in vulnerable communities.

Other efforts include putting in place systems and procedures for a national referral mechanism and strengthening the capacity of law enforcement agencies and the judiciary to protect victims and prosecute offenders. In addition to supporting drafting of the new law, IOM has also provided technical support to the Ministry of Labour to strengthen labour migration practices and to the Kenya Association of Private Employment Agencies (KAPEA) to promote ethical recruitment practices that do not contribute to human trafficking. IOM also provided media training to enhance investigative and reporting capacities and encourage coverage of human trafficking and related issues.